Respiratory System: Definitions/Questions/Answers

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Definitions and Questions/Answers of Chapter 32 and Chapter 26 and NCLEX of the Respiratory System

adventitious breath sound

abnormal sound, including sibilant wheezes (formerly wheezes), sonorous wheezes (formerly rhonchi), fine and course crackles (formerly rales), pleural friction rubs, and stridor

asthma

condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction due to antigen-antibody reaction

atelectasis

collapse of a lung or a portion of a lung

audible wheeze

wheeze that can be heard without the aid of a stethoscope

bronchial sound

loud, high-pitched, hollow-sounding breath sound normally heard over the sternum. Longer on expiration than inspiration

bronchiectasis

lung disorder characterized by chronic dilation of the bronchi

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchial tree accompanied by hypersecretion of mucus

bronchovesicular sound

breath sound normally heard in the area of the scapula and near the sternum; medium in pitched blowing sound, with inspiratory and expiratory phases of equal length

caseation

process whereby the center of the primary tubercle formed in the lungs as a result of tuberculosis becomes soft and cheese-like due to decreased perfusion

cavitation

process whereby a cavity is created in the lung tissue through the liquefaction and rupture of a primary tubercle

chemoreceptor

receptor that monitors the levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ph in the blood

coarse crackle

moist, low-pitched crackling and gurgling lung sound of long duration

diffusion

process whereby a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

emphysema

lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs

epistaxis

hemorrhage of the nares or nostrils; also known as nosebleed

external respiration

exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs

fine crackle

dry, high-pitched crackling and popping lung sounds of short duration

hemopneumothorax

presence of blood and air within the pleural space

hemothorax

condition wherein blood accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs

internal respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level

liquefaction necrosis

death and subsequent change of tissue to a liquid or semi-liquid state; often descriptive of a primary tubercle

lung stretch receptor

receptor that monitors the patterns of breathing and prevents overexpansion of the lungs

perfusion

blood flow through an organ or body part

pleural effusion

collection of fluid within the pleural cavity

pleural friction rub

abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration

pleurisy

condition arising from inflammation of the pleura, or sac, that encases the lung

pneumonia

inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudate, in the lungs

pneumothorax

condition wherein air or gas accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs, causing the lungs to collapse

primary tubercle

nodule that contains tubercle bacilli and forms within lung tissue

respiration

process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide

sibilant wheeze

abnormal breath sound that is high pitched and musical in nature and is heard on inhalation and exhalation

sonorous wheeze

abnormal breath sound that is low pitched and snoring in nature and is louder on expiration

status asthmaticus

persistent, intractable asthma attack

stridor

high-pitched, harsh sound heard on inspiration when the trachea or larynx is obstructed

surfactant

phospholipids that are present in the lungs and lowers surface tension to prevent collapse of the airways

ventilation

movement of gases into and out of the lungs

vesicular sound

soft, breezy, low-pitched sound heard longer on inspiration than expiration resulting from air moving through the smaller airways over the lung periphery, with the exception of the scapular area

antihistamine

medications that provide symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms caused by histamine release

antitussive

medication that suppresses coughing

asthma prophylaxis

prevention of asthma

bronchodilator

medications that relax the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree, thereby relieving bronchospasm and increasing the vital capacity of the lungs

decongestants

drugs that constrict blood vessels in the respiratory tract, resulting in shrinkage of swollen mucous membranes and opened nasal airway passages

expectorant

drugs that increase secretions, reduce viscosity, and help to expel sputum

mucolytic

medication that liquefies pulmonary secretions

parasympatholytics

anticholinergics; medications that decrease the chemical that promotes bronchospasm

smoking cessation aids

medications used to slowly lower the level of nicotine while the patient participates in a behavior modification program for smoking cessation

sympathomimetic

adrenergic drug that mimics the action of the sympathetic nervous system

xanthine

medications that indirectly increase the chemical that causes bronchodilation; used particularly for treatment of acute asthmatic attacks

Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine

a vaccine containing attenuated tubercle bacilli that may be given to persons in foreign countries or to those traveling to foreign countries to produce increased resistance to tuberculosis

chronic airflow limitation, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

a disease state characterized by pulmonary airflow obstruction that is usually progressive, not fully reversible, and sometimes accompanied by airway hyperreactivity; airflow obstruction may be caused by chronic bronchitis and /or emphysema; in chronic hypercapnia the stimulus to breathe is a low p02 instead of an increased pc02

Mantoux test

a skin test that determines infection with tuberculosis; a small amount (0.1 ml) of intermediate-strength purified protein derivative containing 5 tuberculin units is given intradermally in the forearm; an area of induration measuring 10 mm or more in diameter, 48 to 72 hours after injection, indicates that the individual has been exposed to tuberculosis

mechanical ventilation

the use of a ventilator to move room air or oxygen-enriched air into and out of the lungs mechanically if a client is unable to ventilate enough on his or her own to maintain proper levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

multidrug-resistant strain

a multidrug-resistant strain of tuberculosis (MDR-TB) can occur as a result of improper or noncompliant use of prescribed treatment programs and the development of mutations in the tubercle bacilli

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

the causative organism (bacillus) of tuberculosis; an aerobic bacterium that is a nonmotile, nonsporulating, acid-fast rod that secretes niacin

suctioning

a sterile procedure that involves the removal of respiratory secretions that accumulate in the trachobronchial airway when the client is unable to expectorate secretions; performed to maintain a patent airway

tuberculosis

a highly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route via droplet infection

The physician orders 2 to 3 L/min of oxygen to be delivered to the client with COPD because:

a higher flow rate may suppress the client's drive to breathe

A particulate respirator mask is used by the nurse caring for a client with TB because:

regular masks allow the tubercle bacilli to pass through

Incentive spirometry is used to measure the amount of air that:

is inspired with one inhalation

Asthma is characterized by:

intermittent airflow obstruction

The client with a pneumothorax experiences hypoxia due to:

compression of the lung tissue underlying the pneumothorax

fexofenadine (Allegra) is for:

allergies

nicotine (Nicoderm CQ, Habitrol) is for:

smoking cessation

guaifenesin (Mucinex, Robitussin) is for:

bronchitis (unproductive cough)

benzonatate (Tessalon) is for:

bronchitis (unproductive cough)

bupropion (Zyban) is for:

smoking cessation

beclomethasone (QVAR, Beconase AQ) is a:

corticosteroids

Theophylline (Uniphyl) is a:

Xanthines

Salmeterol (Serevent Diskus) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Cromolyn sodium (Intal) is a:

Asthma prophylaxis/prevention

Tiotropium (Spriva) is a:

Parasympatholytics

Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) is a:

Parasympatholytics

Budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler) is a:

Corticosteroids

Epinephrine (Primatene, Adrenalin) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Ipratropium bromide/ albuterol (Combivent, DuoNeb) is a:

Parasympatholytic/ sympathomimetic

Montelukast (Singulair) is a:

Asthma prophylaxis

Terbutaline sulfate (Brethine) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Fluticasone (Flovent, Flonase) is a:

Corticosteroids

Albuterol sulfate (Proventil, Volmax) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Fluticasone with salmeterol (Advair Diskus) is a:

Corticosteroids/ sympathomimetic

Zafirlukast (Accolate) is a:

Asthma prophylaxis

Mometasone (Nasonex) is a:

Corticosteroids

Levalbuterol (Xopenex) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Isoproterenol (Isuprel) is a:

Adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

Triamcinolone (Azmacort, Nasacort AQ) is a:

Corticosteroids

Aminophylline is a:

Xanthines

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