brittle bone disease, fractures in utero & during birth process in severe cases, multiple fractures as child grows, deformities in arms & legs, developmental growth problems, eye abnormalities, risk of hearing impairments
OT: educate/adapt on safe pursue of activities of interest, environmental risk factors, preventive positioning, protective splinting, activities to increase muscle strength, weight-bearing to facilitate bone growth
genetic disorder of connective tissue, tall with long limbs and fingers, defects of the heart valves & aorta, effects lungs, eyes, spinal cord, hard palate
dwarfism, short stature
Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita
a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by multiple joint contractures and can include muscle weakness and fibrosis, non-progressive disease
a congenital deformity involving one foot or both, affected foot appears rotated internally at the ankle
Congenital Club Hand
a congenital deformity involving one hand or both, affected hand appears extremely radially deviated
Congenital Hip Dislocation
more common in girls, hip is developed incorrectly affecting the childs ability to walk, waddling gait
an inward curvature of a portion of the vertebral column
hunchback, is a common condition of a curvature of the upper spine
a person's spine is curved from side to side
stroke corner of mouth = tongue and mouth move toward stimulus
index finger inside mouth = strong rhythmical sucking
grasp forearms & pull to sit = flexion of upper extremities
rapidly drop head backwards = 1st phase arm extension, abduction & hand opening, 2nd phase arm flexion & adduction
apply pressure with thumb on ball of foot = toe flexion
prone suspension, tap along spine = lateral flexion of trunk
Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex
fully rotate head, hold for 5 sec. = extension of extremities on face side, flexion on skull side
finger in palm = finger flexion
Tonic Labyrinthine Supine
place infant in supine = increased extensor tone
Tonic Labyrinthine Prone
place infant in prone = increased flexor tone
Labyrinthine Optical Head Righting
infant suspended vertically, tilt slowly = upright positioning of head
hold in horizontal prone suspension = extension of head, trunk & extremities
Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex
in crawling position, extend head = hips & knees flex
in supine, turn head to one side = log rolling of entire body
in supine, flex one hip & knee towards chest = segmental rolling of upper trunk
rapidly lower infant to surface = extension of lower extremities
suddenly tip forward = extension of upper extremities, hand opening, neck extension
suddenly tip to side = arm extended & abducted to side
suddenly tip backwards = backward arm extension
in prone, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side
in supine, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side
in quadruped, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side
standing, raise one side of surface = curving spine towards raised side
Mobility 0-9 mos.
child should be in prone
Mobility 0-8 mos.
child should be in supine
Mobility 3-14 mos.
child should be rolling
Mobility 7-12 mos.
child should be creeping
Mobility 0-24 mos.
child should be sitting
Mobility 0-12 mos.
child should be standing
Mobility 8-18 mos.
child should be walking
Mobility 0-15 mos.
child should be releasing
Mobility 15 mos.-3 1/2 yrs.
child should be climbing stairs
Mobility 2-6 yrs.
child should be jumping & hopping
Grasp 4 mos.
child should have primitive squeeze
Grasp 5 mos.
child should have palmer grasp
Grasp 6 mos.
child should have radial-palmer grasp
Grasp 8 mos.
child should have radial-digital grasp
Grasp 9 mos.
child should have inferior pincer grasp
Grasp 12 mos.
child should have fine pincer grasp
Grasp 1-1 1/2 yrs.
child should have palmer-supinate grasp
Grasp 2-3 yrs.
child should have digital pronate grasp
Grasp 3 1/2-4 yrs.
child should have static tripod grasp
Grasp 4 1/2-6 yrs.
child should have dynamic tripod grasp
finger to palm (picking up coins) 12-15 mos.
palm to finger (placing coins in slot) 2- 2 1/2 yrs.
simple rotation (unscrewing bottle cap) 2- 2 1/2 yrs.
shift (separating 2 peices of paper) 3- 3 1/2 yrs.
complex rotation (turning pencil over to erase) 6-7 yrs.
in-hand manipulation (manipulating more than one object in hand at same time) 6-7 yrs.
Scissor Use 2-3 yrs.
shows interest in scissors, holds them & snips, opens & closes
Scissor Use 3-4 yrs.
manipulates scissors forward, coordinates lateral, cuts straight, cuts geometric shapes, cuts circles
Scissor Use 4-7 yrs.
cuts simple & complex figures ( dog or person )
inferior scissor grasp 7 mos.
scissor grasp 8 mos.
inferior pincer grasp 9 mos.
pincer grasp 10 mos.
fine pincer grasp 12 mos.
Play 0-2 yrs.
Play 2-4 yrs.
Play 4-7 yrs.
Play 7-12 yrs.
Self-feeding 5-7 mos.
takes cereal or poured baby food from spoon
Self-feeing 6-8 mos.
attempts to hold bottle
Self-feeding 6-9 mos.
holds & tries to eat cracker, sucks on it instead, consumes soft foods, grabs spoon but bangs it or sucks on it
Self-feeding 9-13 mos.
finger-feeds macaroni, peas, dry cereal
Self-feeding 12-14 mos.
dips spoon in food, brings spoon to mouth but spills
Self-feeding 15-18 mos.
scoops food with spoon & brings to mouth
Self-feeding 24-30 mos.
demonstrates interest in using fork stabbing food such as: canned fruit, proficient use of spoon, eats cereal with milk
Self-dressing 1 yr.
holds out arms & feet, pulls off shoes, removes socks, pushes arms through sleeves & legs through pants
Self-dressing 2 yrs.
removes unfastened coat, removes untied shoes, helps pull down pants
Self-dressing 2 1/2 yrs.
removes elastic pants, assists in pulling off socks, puts on front button coat or shirt, unbuttons large buttons
Self-dressing 3 yrs.
puts on pullover shirt, shoes without fasteners, socks, independently pulls down pants, zips & unzips, buttons large buttons
Self-dressing 3 1/2 yrs.
finds front of clothing, snaps & hooks, unzips & zips, puts on mittens, unbuckles, dresses with supervision
Self-dressing 4 yrs.
removes pullover shirt, buckles belt or shoes, zips, puts on socks, puts on shoes with assist with laces, laces shoes, identifies back & front of shirt
Self-dressing 4 1/2 yrs.
puts belt in loops
Self-dressing 5 yrs.
ties & unties knots, dresses unsupervised
Self-dressing 6 yrs.
independent in all dressing
Toileting 1 yr.
indicates discomfort when wet or soiled
Toileting 1 1/2 yrs.
sits on toilet supervised when placed there
Toileting 2 yrs.
Toileting 2 1/2 yrs.
occassional daytime accidents, rarely bowel accidents, tells someone when needs to go to bathroom, may need help on toilet
Toileting 3 yrs.
goes to bathroom independently, may need help with wiping, may need help with fasteners
Toileting 4-5 yrs.
independent with toileting
Household Management 13 mos.
Household Management 2 yrs.
picks up & puts away toys with reminders, copies parents
Household Management 3 yrs.
carries things without dropping them, dusts with help, dries dishes with help, gardens with help, wipes up spills
Household Management 4 yrs.
fixes dry cereal & snacks, helps with sorting laundry
Household Management 5 yrs.
puts away toys neatly, makes a sandwich, takes out trash, makes bed, puts dirty clothes in hamper, makes bed, answer phone correctly
Household Management 6 yrs.
does simple errands, does household chores without redoing, cleans sink, washes dishes with help, crosses street safely
Household Management 7-9 yrs.
begins to cook simple meals, puts clean clothes away, hangs up clothes, manages small amount of money, uses telephone correctly
Household Management 10-12 yrs.
cooks simple meals with supervision, does simple repairs with tools, begins doing laundry, sets table, washes dishes, cares for pet with reminders
Household Management 13-14 yrs.
does laundry, cooks meals, independent in household management