States of Matter, Phase Changes, Energy, and the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

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Solid

Particles must be in constant motion, except when temperature reaches absolute zero

Solid

Must have strong attractive forces acting between (it's) particles

Solid

Has particles that vibrate around fixed locations in the solid

Solid

Has more order, and is more dense, than most liquids

Solid

Particles are more tightly packed together than in most liquids

Crystalline solid

(It's) atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, geometric structure

Unit cell

The smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal

Unit cell

(It's) shape determines shape of the crystal; a representative part of larger whole

Liquid

Fixed volume, but particles take the shape of its container

Liquid

Particles cannot expand to fill its container, but they can flow to adjust to the shape of its container

Liquid

Attractive forces limit particles' range of motion so they remain closely packed in a fixed volume

Liquid

More dense, and less fluid than gases

Liquid

Considered incompressible; already tightly packed, particles don't have room to compress further

Fluid

Ability to flow and diffuse; property of liquids and gases (L & G are classified as ____)

Gas

Constant motion of particles allows (it) to expand until it fills its container

Gas

Very low density; a lot of space exists between (it's) particles

Gas

No significant forces of attraction between (it's) particles

Gas

Particles can flow easily past each other

Gas

Random motion of (___) particles causes (___) to mix until evenly distributed; space where (___) flows is often occupied by another (___)

Diffusion

Term used to describe the movement of one material through another

Effusion

When a gas escapes through a tiny opening

Melting

Endothermic; solid to liquid

Vaporization

Endothermic; liquid to gas

Sublimation

Endothermic; solid to gas (skips liquid phase)

Freezing

Exothermic; liquid to solid

Condensation

Exothermic; gas to liquid

Deposition

Exothermic; gas to solid (skips liquid phase)

Heat

Transfer of energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature

Liquid phase

In water: when molecules on the surface of the ice (solid) gain enough energy to break the hydrogen bonds apart, (this phase) is entered

Melting point

Temperature at which forces holding the crystal lattice (of a crystalline solid) are broken and becomes liquid

Melting point

Difficult to determine (this point) of amorphous solid

Amorphous solid

Difficult to determine melting point of (this type of solid)

Vaporization

Process by which a liquid changes to gas/vapor

Vapor

Substance which is normally liquid at room temperature is considered a (___) when it's in its gas phase

Evaporation

Vaporization that occurs only at the surface of the liquid

Gas phase

As temperature rises, more and more liquids go into (this phase)

Vapor pressure

Pressure exerted by vapor over a liquid

Boiling point

Temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external or atmospheric pressure

Boiling point

Molecules throughout the liquid have enough energy to vaporize at the (___)

Freezing

Molecules lose Kinetic Energy and velocity decreases

Freezing

Heat is removed from liquid; molecules are less likely to flow past each other

Freezing point

Temperature at which liquid converts into a crystalline solid

Condensation

The process by which gas/vapor becomes liquid

Condensation

Opposite of vaporization

Condensation

In water: formation of hydrogen bond releases thermal energy and indicates change from vapor to the liquid phase. (Which phase change?)

Condensation

Always involves transfer of thermal energy

Condensation

Dew collecting on grass (Which phase change?)

Deposition

Process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid; energy is released

Deposition

Opposite/reverse of sublimation

Endothermic

All transitions that require the absorption of heat

Endothermic

All transitions that require energy

Exothermic

All transitions that give off heat

Exothermic

All transitions that release energy

Boiling point

Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure at (this time/point)

Boiling

Heat is added to the bottom, causing bubbles to form at the bottom and rise to the top

Boiling

Occurs from heating the liquid and increasing the energy throughout the entire liquid

Evaporation

Molecules with a higher-than-average kinetic energy escape from the surface of a liquid (what phase change?)

Evaporation

Vaporization at the surface of the liquid

Evaporation

Occurs at the surface of a liquid and is due to vapor pressure

Evaporation

Pressure is a more important factor than temperature in (this phase change)

Pressure, temperature, boiling point

Factors that affect the rate of evaporation

Factors that affect the rate of evaporation

Pressure, temperature, boiling point

Increase of temperature, decrease of atmospheric pressure

Ways water can boil

Ways water can boil

Increase of temperature, decrease of atmospheric pressure

Heat of fusion

Amount of energy it takes to turn solid into a liquid (energy involved for phase change)

Heat of vaporization

Amount of energy it takes to turn gas to liquid, or liquid to gas (energy involved for phase change)

Kinetic-molecular theory

Describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion

Kinetic energy

Energy due to motion

Kinetic energy of particles

As temperature increases, kinetic energy increases

Strong attractive forces acting between particles

(Why do) solids have a definite volume and a definite shape

No significant forces of attraction between gas particles

(Why do) gases have an indefinite volume and an indefinite shape

Evaporation

In water, example: water molecules randomly escaping from surface

Volatile

Easily evaporates/easily enters gas phase

Vapor pressure

Amount of push/pressure the vapor puts against its container

Vapor pressure

Amount of force a gas puts on its container

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