BLOOD PRESSURE

103 terms by anjobe2003 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

BLOOD PRESSURE

THE AMOUNT OF FORCE EXERTED AGAINST THE ARTERY WALLS AS BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH THE VESSEL IS KNOW AS BLOOD PRESSURE

SYSTOLIC

PRESSURE THAT IS EXERTED ON THE ARTERY AS BLOOD MOVES THROUGH AT PEAK CONTRACTION OF THE HEART (CONTRACTING)

DIASTOLIC

REPRESENTS THE PRESSURE IN THE ARTERY WHEN THE HEART IS RESTING BETWEEN BEATS (RELAXING)

PRIMARY OR ESSENTIAL
HYPERTENSION

CAUSE OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IS UNKNOWN
THERE IS NO KNOWN CURE FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS HAVE A ROLE IN PREVENTION OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

SECONDARY
HYPERTENSION

THERE IS AN IDENTIFIABLE CAUSE
*KIDNEY DISORDER, TUMOR, * OTHER MEDICATIONS

CONSEQUENCES OF
UNCONTROLLED HBP

CHF, STROKE (BRAIN ATTACK),
RENAL FAILURE,
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (HEART ATTACK)
BLURRED VISION AND OR BLINDNESS
(OPTIC NERVE DAMAGE)

FRAMINGHAM STUDY

A LARGE SCALE, 30 YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY REVEALED A STRONG ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND THE DEVELOPEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL DISEASES

VETERANS ADMINISTRATION
COOPERATIVE STUDY (VA)

DRUG THERAPY IN THE SEVERE HYPERTENSIVE GROUP
(AVERAGE 115/120 MM HG) AND MODERATE HYPERTENSIVE GROUP (AVERAGE 105/114 MM HG) REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN MORTALITY WHEN HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE WAS TREATED AND CONTROLLED WITH DRUG THERAPY

HYPERTENSION DETECTION AND
FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM (HDFP)

CONTROLLING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PERSONS WITH CONFIRMED BASELINE DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OF 90 MM TO 104 MM HG RESULTED IN A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN 5 YEAR MORTALITY FROM ALL CAUSES (STROKE, HEART FAILURE, AND RENAL FAILURE)

SYSTOLIC HYPERTENSION IN THE
ELDERLY PROGRAM (SHEP)

THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATING THE ELDERLY POPULATION (60 + YEARS) WITH ISOLATED SYSTOLIC HYPERTENSION (ISH) SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED THE INCIDENCE OF STROKE

NON-MODIFIABLE

NON-CHANGEABLE
GENDER-MALES MORE LIKELY TO BEAT RISK THAN WOMEN
RACE-MORE COMMON IN BLACK PEOPLE FEMALES
AGE-NOT AS YOUNG, LESS EXCERSIZE
FAMILY HISTORY--MORE LIKELY TO DEVELOPE

MAY BE MODIFIABLE
(POSSIBLE TO CHANGE)

LIABILITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE
HIGH RESTING PULSE RATE

MODIFIABLE
(CAN BE CHANGED)

OBESITY
SODIUM INTAKE
ALCOHOL(24 OZ BEER FOR MEN 1/2 FOR WOMEN)
(8 OZ WINE FOR MEN 1/2 FOR WOMEN)
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE(LAZY)
PHYSICAL INACTIVITY

CARDIOVASCULAR
RISK FACTORS

HIGH CHOLESTEROL
SMOKING
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE/
PHYSICALLY INACTIVE
OBESITY
DIABETES

STAGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE
CONTROL PROCESS

MEASUREMENT, AWARENESS,
TREATMENT, CONTROL

MEASUREMENT

AN INDIVIDUAL NEEDS AN ACCURATE BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT BEFORE HE/SHE CAN BE MADE AWARE THE BLOOD PRESSURE READING IS ELEVATED

AWARENESS

AN INDIVIDUAL NEEDS TO KNOW WHAT HIS/HER BLOOD PRESSURE READING IS, WHAT IT MEANS, AND THE COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

TREATMENT

DIAGNOSIS NEEDS TO BE MADE BY THE PHYSICIAN, THEN AN INDIVIDUALIZED TREATMENT PLAN SHOULD BE DEVELOPED

CONTROL

AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT PLAN WILL ACHIEVE BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL AND MAINTAIN THIS CONTROL OVER THE INDIVIDUAL'S LIFETIME

TWO WEAK LINKS IN CONTROLLING
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

FAILURE TO BE DIAGNOSED
FAILURE TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN CONTROL
(PRIMARY CONCERN)

FAILURE TO BE DIAGNOSED

STRENGTHEN WEAK LINK BY STANDARD REFERRAL LEVELS, FOLLOW-UP APPOINTMENTS, PATIENT EDUCATION, GIVE CLEAR MESSAGES

FAILURE TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN CONTROL
(PRIMARY CONCERN)

STRENGTHEN WEAK LINK BY
GOOD PATIENT/PROVIDER COMMUNICATION
INDIVIDUALIZED TREATMENT REGIMEN
CORRECT COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
INSTRUCT PATIENT IN DAILY HOME MONITORING

SCREENING POSITIONING

WITHIN 3 FEET OF THE READING SCALE AND AT EYE LEVEL

POOR MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES (CONTROLLABLE)

RAPID DEFLATION OF CUFF, SCREENERS BIAS, IMPAIRED HEARING, USING 4TH PHASE FOR DIASTOLIC READING, MENTAL CONCENTRATION, FAULTY EQUIPMENT AND MISREADING THE MANOMETER

VARIABILITY DUE TO BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

CONTROLLABLE AND UNCONTROLLABLE

CONTROLLABLE

EMOTIONAL STATE, PATIENT POSITION, REST VS EXERCISE, ROOM TEMPERATURE, FULL BLADDER, CIGARETTE SMOKING, AND CAFFEINE INGESTION

UNCONTROLLABLE

EMOTIONAL STATE

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF
BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

POOR HEARING, CUFF SIZE, AND PATIENT POSITIONING

POOR HEARING

IF TUBING IS TOO LONG IT WILL DISTORT SOUNDS, IF THE STETHOSCOPE IS NOT WORN PROPERLY POOR SOUND TRANSMISSION WILL OCCUR

CUFF SIZE

IF THE CUFF SIZE IS TOO SMALL SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC READINGS WILL BE TOO HIGH, IF THE CUFF SIZE IS TOO LARGE BOTH SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC READINGS WILL BE TOO LOW

PATIENT POSITIONING

IF THE PATIENTS ARM IS BELOW HEART LEVEL THE READING WILL BE TOO HIGH, IF THE PATIENTS ARM IS ABOVE HEART LEVEL THE READING WILL BE TOO LOW

KOROTKOFF SOUNDS

SOFT TAP, MURMUR OR SWISHING, HARD TAP, MUFFLING AND DISAPPEARANCE OF SOUND

WAYS TO ACCENTUATE KOROTKOFF SOUNDS

RAPIDLY INFLATE THE CUFF, INFLATE CUFF WHILE THE ARM IS ELEVATED, OPEN AND CLOSE FIST SEVERAL TIMES RAPIDLY AFTER THE CUFF HAS BEEN INFLATED ABOVE THE SYSTOLIC LEVEL

AUSCULTATORY GAP

TEMPORARY DISAPPEARANCE OF SOUND DURING PHASE 2 OR 3, DETERMINING AN APPROPRIATE MAXIMUM INFLATION LEVEL (MIL) CAN REDUCE THIS ERROR

ABSENT FIFTH PHASE

OCCURS WHEN SOUNDS ARE HEARD DOWN TO 0 MM HG OR BELOW THE TRUE DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, THE ONSET OF PHASE 4 SHOULD BE USED TO RECORD THE DIASTOLIC PRESSURE WHEN PHASE 5 IS ABSENT, WHEN THIS OCCURS ALL THREE PHASES SHOULD BE RECORDED AS FOLLOWS: KOROTKOFF1/KOROTKOFF 4/KOROTKOFF 5 (120/50/0

THREE TYPES OF SPHYGMOMANOMETER

MERCURY (MOST ACCURATE), ANEROID(WHAT WE HAVE) AND ELECTRONIC

THE CUFF

CORRECT CUFF SIZE MUST BE USED. A CUFF TOO SMALL WILL GIVE FALSELY HIGH READINGS AND A CUFF TOO LARGE WILL GIVE FALSELY LOW READINGS

PLACEMENT OF THE CUFF

THE BLADDER OF THE CUFF MUST BE CENTERED OVER THE BRACHIAL ARTERY.

STETHOSCOPE

TUBING SHOULD BE 12 -15 INCHES FROM EARPIECE, EARPIECES SHOULD BE INSERTED FORWARD DOWN INTO THE EARS

SYSTOLIC 130 OR LESS DIASTOLIC 80 OR LESS

RECHECK IN 1 - 2 YEARS

SYSTOLIC 130-138, DIASTOLIC 80-88

RECHECK IN 6 - 12 MONTHS

SYSTOLIC 140-158 DIASTOLIC 90 - 98

CONFIRM WITHIN 2 MONTHS

SYSTOLIC 160-178 DIASTOLIC 100 - 108

RECHECK WITHIN 1 MONTH

SYSTOLIC 180-208 DIASTOLIC 110-118

RECHECK WITHIN 1 WEEK

SYSTOLIC 210 OR GREATER, DIASTOLIC 120 OR GREATER

SEND TO EMERGENCY ROOM

PALPATATION

TO FEEL

AUSCULTATION

TO LISTEN

conversion farenheight to celcius

F - 32 x 5/9

conversion celcius to farenheight

C x 9/5 + 32

conversion kg to pounds

1 kg = 2.2 lb

conversion pounds to kg

1 lb = 0.45 kg

oral

98.6 F/37 C

rectal

99.6 F/ 37.6C

Axiillary

97.6 F/ 36.4 C

Pulse sites

temporal, carotid,brachial, apical,radial, femoral,popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial

Body temp is controlled by

hyperthalmus voluntary and involuntary muscle contrations

describe 2 ways a fever will leave the body

crisis and lysis

98.6 F is considered normal temp when taken

orally

most accurate way to measure body temp is

rectal

4 types of fever

continuous-which remains elevated with little to no fluctuation
intermittant-alternatly rises and falls does not return to normal, elevated or subnormal
remittant- temp rises and falls doesn't return to normal until recovery
relapsing- fever that returns after several days of normal temp

list 5 things that may increase body temp

illness, exercise, food intake, heat exposure, pregnancy, emotion, drugs, age(infants have a temp of 1-2 degrees higher than adults)

list 5 things that may decrease body temp

illness (viral infection), activity, fasting, emotions, exposure to cold, drugs, age(elderly have decreased metabolism)

physicians may advise patient to drink plenty of fluids, wear lighter clothing and stop exercising

patient should not be sponged down it may cause shivering

crisis

sudden drop in temperature

lysis

gradual drop in temperature

cover for thermometer

sheeth

name 3 types of thermometers

glass, electric and tympanic

there are 4 ways to take a temperature

typanic, orally, axillary and rectal

how one records any vitals

ex. temp 98.6F, initials, date, time and how

pulse rates adults

60-80 bpm

pulse rates children over 6

70-115 bpm

pulse rates children age 1-6

75-130 bpm

pulse rates infants

110-130 bpm

pulse rates for adults at rest

45-50 bpm

pulse rates for a well fit person

approx. 50 bpm

bradycardia

slower than 60 bpm

tachycardia

faster than 100 bpm

pulse charateristics regular

regular- occurs at even strength & reccurance/time interval between the beats are equal

pulse charateristics irregular

varies in strenght & reoccurance/ take for one full minute

pulse characteristics intermittent

skipping an occasisona beat

volume

strength of beat/ full, strong, feeble, hard,week

thready

weak, rapid rate

bounding

faster than normal, then dissapears

respirations adults

12-20 rpm

respirations children (1 - 6)

20-30 rpm

respirations infants

26-40 rpm

eupnea

normal

bradypnea

slow and under 12 rpm

tachypnea

rapid above 24 rpm

apnea

temporary cessation of breathing

dypnea

difficult breathing

hyperpnea

increased depth of breathing

orthopenea

difficulty in breathing while lying down

cyanosis

bluish skin due to lack of oxygen

anoxia

lack of oxygen

ischemia

lack of oxygen to a body part

respiratory

shallow breathing with only the upper portion of the luings

cheyne-stokes

apnea & dypnea

stertoreus

noisy, such as snorring sounds

abdominal

rales-crackling sound/rhonchi- rattling sounds

try not to alert your patient while you are doing

respirations

height

patient standing on scale backwards and assist off of scale

what is the control center for respiration

medulla oblongata

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set