Topic 12: Neural Function

Created by myaluv79 

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Drugs that mimic the effects of endorphins and enkephalins are expected to decrease pain perception.

True

Myopia is due to an error of light refraction in which:

far vision is impaired.

An inflamed tympanic membrane is a classic finding in acute otitis media.

True

An increase in PaCO2 or acidemia would be expected to decrease cerebral blood flow.

False

An example of inappropriate treatment for head trauma would be:

hypoventilation.

Before making a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease:

other potential causes of dementia are ruled out.

Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports:

sudden, severe headache.

Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include:

acute hypertension.

A patient with rest tremor, poor balance, and difficulty initiating movements probably has a cerebellar disorder.

False

Clinical manifestations of a stroke within the right cerebral hemisphere include:

left-sided muscle weakness and neglect.

Fibromyalgia is a diagnosis given to women with chronic muscle pain for which no other cause is found as it has no particular diagnostic criteria.

False

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk for proliferative retinopathy.

True

Conductive hearing loss:

is due to dysfunction of outer and middle ear.

Secondary injury after head trauma refers to:

brain injury due to the body's response to tissue damage.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, dopamine precursors, and anticholinergics are all used in the management of Parkinson disease because they:

increase dopamine activity in the basal ganglia.

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk for proliferative retinopathy.

True

Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports:

sudden, severe headache.

Glaucoma is always associated with consistently elevated intraocular pressure.

False

An inflamed tympanic membrane is a classic finding in acute otitis media.

True

Ménière disease is characterized by:

vertigo in association with hearing loss.

Steroids may be used in the management of acute exacerbation of symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis because:

demyelination is mediated by immune mechanisms.

Vertigo is a symptom of abnormal spinning or movement associated with dysfunction of the middle ear.

False

Bell palsy is a:

paralysis of the muscles innervated by the facial nerve.

Parkinson disease is associated with:

a deficiency of dopamine in the substantia nigra.

A patient who presents with headache that is unilateral, throbbing, and associated with sensitivity to light and noise is likely experiencing a migraine.

True

Sensorineural hearing loss is not amenable to treatment.

True

Which of the following treatments is helpful in neuropathic pain but not used for acute pain?

Anticonvulsants

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually managed with volume expansion and blood pressure support to enhance cerebral perfusion. This is necessary because subarachnoid hemorrhage predisposes to:

cerebral vasospasm.

Clinical manifestations of headache, stiff neck, and high fever are indicative of:

meningitis.

Which of the following groups of clinical findings indicates the poorest neurologic functioning?

Assumes decorticate posture with light touch, no verbal response.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is most often associated with:

cerebral aneurysm.

A sudden onset of eye pain and impaired vision associated with pupil dilation is characteristic of:

narrow-angle glaucoma.

The dementia of Alzheimer disease is associated with structural changes in the brain, including:

deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain.

Glutamate can damage neurons when it accumulates in synapses after brain injury because it opens calcium channels.

True

The stage of spinal shock that follows spinal cord injury is characterized by:

absent spinal reflexes below the level of injury.

Which of the following diagnoses is most likely in a patient who experiences progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass in the upper extremities?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

The classic manifestations of Parkinson disease include:

rest tremor and skeletal muscle rigidity.

In the acute phase of stroke, treatment is aimed at:

stabilization of respiratory and cardiovascular function.

The most important preventative measure for hemorrhagic stroke is:

blood pressure control.

Pain is:

a subjective experience that is difficult to measure objectively.

The motor dysfunction that accompanies cerebral palsy appears in childhood and progressively worsens with age.

False

What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?

Slower rate of action potential conduction.

Secondary injury after head trauma refers to:

brain injury due to the body's response to tissue damage.

Manifestations of acute brain ischemia (Cushing reflex) are due primarily to:

sympathetic nervous system activation.

Neuropathic pain is generated in neurons in the absence of a painful stimulus.

True

The physiologic change most likely to lead to an increase in intracranial pressure is:

cerebral vasodilation.

Gate control theory of pain transmission predicts that activity in touch receptors will:

decrease pain signal transmission in the cord.

Ménière disease is characterized by:

vertigo in association with hearing loss.

Encephalitis is usually:

due to viral infection of brain cells.

A patient who experiences petite mal or absence seizures has a generalized seizure type.

True

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