ODY Chapter 1 Part 1

32 terms by scfreda Teacher

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chemistry

the study of matter, the changes it undergoes and the energy required to change matter

matter

any substance; has mass and volume

mass

The quantity of matter contained in a body; measured in grams

volume

measure of space that matter takes up; mL, cm3

weight

A measure of force with which gravity pulls a body toward the center of the earth;

phase

any part of a system with uniform composition and properties; a state

physical property

a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition

physical constant

properties of pure substances that can be measured and expressed numerically; fp, mp, d, etc.

density

the amount of mass in a given volume

physical change

one in which the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition

chemical properties

characteristic that cannot be observed without altering the substance

chemical change

a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter

atom

smallest particle of an element

law of conservation of mass

Mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes

element

a pure substance made of only one kind of atom

compound

a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

mixture

A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined

homogeneous

uniform; of the same kind

heterogeneous

not uniform throughout

energy

capacity to do work or cause change

calorie

amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius

joule

the SI unit of energy

potential energy

energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement

kinetic energy

the energy an object has due to its motion

law of conservation of energy

the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

heat

the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter

temperature

a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter

heat of fusion

the amount of energy required to change 1 g of a solid to a liquid

heat of vaporization

the amount of heat energy required to convert one gram of a substance from a liquid to a gas

calorimeter

a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change

exothermic reaction

a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat

endothermic reaction

A reaction that ABSORBS energy in the form of heat

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