Abnormal Psychology must be considered in what?
culture (group/people), development (age), and context (goodness of fit)
What do you mean goodness of fit?
Abnormal psychology MUST BE considered in context like the person who takes out his apendix may be abnormal in the USA but without money and life threating may be normal
What do you mean abnormal psychology is culture bound?
What is normal/abnormal must be considered in context of the location and group of people
What developmental considerations for abnormal psychology?
Is it normal for that age? Bowel inconsistence for example okay for young not okay for teens
There are several models people use to decide if something is abnormal what are they?
Subjective, Normative, Cultural, statistical
Out of the 4 descriptive models for abnormal psychology what is the subjective model?
personal beliefs about whats abnormal, we're all arm chair psychologist with out thoughts and feelings about abnormal behaviors
Out of the 4 descriptive models for abnormal psychology what is the cultural model?
based on cultural norms like muslim women is hard for us to understand because we're ethnocentric but okay there
Out of the 4 descriptive models for abnormal psychology what is the normative model?
we define an ideal and measure against it if its close we consider it normal. Kinda like what the justice system does which beliefs in free will even though psychologist can always find a root. for instance Freud said if you could love others and work you were healthy
Out of the 4 descriptive models for abnormal psychology what is the statistical model and its downfalls
Its objective. It uses stats to see whats abnormal through SD. It has an operational definition though the cut off is arbitrary.
So when psychologist talk about mental illness what main things do they look for?
distress, impairment to normal functioning, risk to self or others, and socially/culturally or developmentally unacceptable behaviors. All of these can vary like narsistic people have no distress. Dexter isn't impaired. Old people may want to die. Piercing using to be unacceptable
Abnormal psychology can be explained through biological causes = elaborate
genetics ( heredity, genotype), Illness (physical, chemical changes), injury, teratogens
what is trephination
drill a hole into your skull with a rock, some lived through and some were healed bc of placebo effect. happened in 6000 bc
in 2000 what was popular
anamism - belife in supernatural world was alive like trees or gods could be angry
who's the first to attempt to understand abnormal through physiological explanation?
500, father modern medcine, looked at body for understanding issues. Into humors coined diff terms
mentally ill need humane care didn't really get it. were in asylums famous one is called bedulm meaning cases and it was in longdon called st mary's
popular techniques up to past 100's
trephinations, humors, bleeding, memesrism, hypnois, talking cure, electroconvulsive therpay
then in 1950's something changed the course of dealing with abnormal psychology
deinstutalization bc in 50's france founded psychtopics on accident - initally allergy medcine
Freud's explaination of what caused abnormal behavior
intrapsychic causes looked at free association, fixation, inner conflict, defense mechanism, unconscience
behavioral explain abnormal behavior
faulty learning model. Pavlov and coditing 2 paired. Operant conditionin and Thorndikes puzzel box with his law of effect saying we repeat behaviors that are rewarded. and seligman with learned helpless shuttle box dog jumps shocked and back shocked
observational learning explain abnormal behavior
bandura bobo dolls. modeling. learn watch others. if see parent punished child less likely to do it. Stuff likew itnessing parents abuse one another hard because it encodes deeper in the memory in the limbic system
mental proccess and abnormal behavior
aaron beck and ellis cognitive distortions are dysfunctional, maladaptive thoughts that aren't accurate reflections of relaity. they create biases in perceptions. what is noticed and proccessed
maslow and rogers. conditions of worth, self actualizatons. remove obstacle to grow
counseling psychologist and counselors
cousnling psychologist phave ph d or Ed D work with least severe. Get LPC. Counsleors at MA level get LPC and can work on own with 3 years superverised cousenling
random assignment impossible impractical or unethical groups are already there so you just work with them
both variables go up together. slant ends at high right. or both go down together
number of people who have the disorder In a given population includes point prevalence which is the population today was measured and we look to see how many people had OCD) on and lifetime Prevalence if we asked you if you ever have the disorder at any point in your life lifetime prevalence is higher than point prevalence
The DSM-IV is a multi-axle system
Axis 1: actue diagnosis, treatable, Axis 2 longstanding conditons, harder to treat Like personality disorders, three any medical issues that could be related, for social and environmental stressors, I did G. AF or the global assessment of functioning which is 0 to 100 subjective assessment
Pervasive developmental disorders like autism and Asperger's is characterized by
deficits in communication and social skills or eye contact, never interest, evident in infancy and childhood, often comorbid with mental retardation
Autistic disorders characterized by
they are not generally savants, problems related socially about a third of them will speak, poor eye contact recognition of facial expressions disinterested friendships easily excited and unsettled really really dislike change their communication is Repetitive or imitation 20 to 30% of developed speech, they have a pre-occupation with parts of objects short interest have to be trained well Deficits and symbolic pretend play also call theory of mind
Asperger's is characterized
Kind of like high functioning autism, normal IQ normal cognitive functioning, that language is attacked that they have difficulties with subtle leaves and indirect meaning they are not exceptionally competent, feelings are that big of a deal, avoid eye contact, misinterpret comparables, difficult With empathy, interrupting speaking too loudly they are often ostracized, they also have narrow behavioral interest to become preoccupied
What is the main difference from autism and asbergers
in asperbers languages intact IQ is normal changers handle better might be interested in social interaction though lacking the skills
causes of asbergers/autism
Neurological abnormailty, in structure and connective tittues. More likekly to get it in genes more common in boys than girls. NOT DUE TO THIMERISOL MMR, interactiona with enviormen excerbates symptoms, combirid with anxiety disorders
treatment of asbergs/autism
there is no cure, they can use antipsychotics stimulants method of our eyes who morbid stuff, applied behavioral analysis, increased social contact in practice
Childhood disintegrative disorder is
they will normally developed until about 210 of the very latest and then they'll have profound loss and more at least or more than two areas of communication and social skills play a behavioral control motor skills, tends not to improve loose cognitive functioning
affects only females, normal until 5 months or 2years at elast. Guys get it but die first. Decreased heatd growth, loss of motor control, loss of previously developled skills, wringing of hands and loss of hand skills
mental retardation is characterized by
IQ and functional abilities below normal. below 70 for IQ when the average is100 and impairment in two areas of daily functioning (communication, self care, home living, interpersonal/social, community living, self direction, academic, occupational, leisure, saftey), onset before 18 goes on axes2. 5X as likely to get another impairment
there are four levels of mental retardation elaborate also refered to as the term "significant subaverage intellectual functionin"
1% of people have it .Mild = 50-55 to 70 IQ, 85%, Moderate 35/40- 50-55 10%, severe 20-25/35-40, 3-4%, profound below 20-25 1-2%
elaborate on the lifestyles of the four levels of mental retardation
mild a person can live on his own but should have a support system and the presence of stressful times moderate they need to live with her family, severe they may have language functioning, profound there like a vegetable partly in response to stimuli that I contact and speaking
What behaviors do the people that are mentally retarded exhibit
steryotypies: hand Flapping and body rocking, Self-interest behavior, they rather interact with objects people, respond poorly to stress the tantrums and their fearless
What are the causes of mental retardation
. Genetics like PKU, fragile x syndrome, down syndrome.. Enviorment: fetal alchol syndrome, cultural family retardation / teratogens: lead, mercury,
what is the treatment or mental retardation
It is irreversible, institutionalization, applied behavioral analysis parentheses shaping chaining token economy) inclusion -mainstreaming- IEP, Identify appropriate occupations of past times and IEP is an individualized educational plan
During adolescence kids to Develop cognitive abilities that allow them to understand
Abstract concepts like justice and beauty, Hypothetical thinking Like could happen, metacognition which is the ability to think about thinking
An intervention that is supported employment for mental retardation is what
provides training and the job coach to help people succeed and meaningful jobsthose that are more impaired they work in sheltered workshops which is usually a freestanding workplace were workers formed task for other businesses such as sending out large mailings were packing items they are paid and learned how to work on time to complete task and taking direction
What gender differences exist in mental retardation
a young age males are more likely to have loyal mental retardation but this may be just a testing effect is girls have higher verbal skills most severe forms are retardation others in a different
Down syndrome is a genetic cause of mental retardation elaborate
They have three 21stchromosomes. Slanted all eyes, old skin in the corner of all if, Y. nasal bridge, protruding tongue, short stature and neck smaller ears. OneOut of 1000children is born with down syndrome as a woman gets older the Chances increase. Brain structure is smaller Plaques and tangles like Alzheimer's person. The brain deteriorates around eight worse between 35 and 45 resulting in most of them having Alzheimer's
Phenlketonura Is a genetic cause of mental retardation elaborate
essential enzymes are absent the breakdown PKU amino acid. PKU accumulates causing physical and mental,.01% of the population hasn't highest weight and Native American That a special by up to the age of eight or mental retardation discontinuation of the diet after 12 but with lower IQ babies are screened in the US