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1. The scientific study of behavior without reference to mental processes was of special interest to
a. Edward Titchener.
b. William James.
c. Sigmund Freud.
d. B. F. Skinner.

d

2. Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of
a. nature and nurture.
b. naturalistic observation and introspection.
c. behavior and mental processes.
d. conscious and unconscious motives.

a

3. An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by
a. SQ3R.
b. behaviorism.
c. a psychodynamic perspective.
d. a biopsychosocial approach.

d

4. Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. evolutionary
d. psychodynamic

c

5. Which perspective would be most helpful for understanding the role of retrieval practice on long-term memory of information?
a. psychodynamic
b. social-cultural
c. cognitive
d. behavior genetics

c

6. After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
a. replication.
b. hindsight bias.
c. random sampling.
d. the placebo effect.

b

7. When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
a. the placebo effect.
b. hindsight bias.
c. critical thinking.
d. overconfidence.

c

8. Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of
a. a hypothesis.
b. hindsight bias.
c. an operational definition.
d. the placebo effect.

a

9. Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using?
a. survey research
b. case study
c. experimentation
d. naturalistic observation

d

10. A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that
a. work-related stress has a negative impact on marital happiness.
b. marital unhappiness promotes work-related stress.
c. higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
d. marital happiness has no causal influence on work-related stress.

c

11. Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
a. the survey
b. the case study
c. the experiment
d. naturalistic observation

c

12. In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to
a. replication.
b. operational definitions.
c. random sampling.
d. placebo effects.

d

13. To assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of
a. reactions to the comedy skit.
b. level of sexual stimulation.
c. marital status.
d. sense of humor.

b

14. In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the
a. control condition.
b. independent variable.
c. experimental condition.
d. dependent variable.

d

15. Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to
a. avoid the use of animals in experimental research.
b. minimize the use of the double-blind procedure with human research participants.
c. treat information about individual research participants confidentially.
d. avoid the use of financial incentives in any kind of research.

c

1. To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener engaged people in self-reflective
a. psychoanalysis.
b. introspection.
c. positive psychology.
d. spaced practice.

b

2. The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
a. Freudian psychology.
b. cognitive neuroscience.
c. structuralism.
d. humanistic psychology.

d

3. A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
a. behaviorism.
b. humanistic psychology.
c. cognitive neuroscience.
d. the psychodynamic perspective.

c

4. Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. psychodynamic
d. neuroscience

d

5. Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
a. neuroscience
b. behavioral
c. psychodynamic
d. social-cultural

c

6. Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
a. social
b. developmental
c. clinical
d. cognitive

c

7. Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
a. a confounding variable.
b. random assignment.
c. hindsight bias.
d. overconfidence.

d

8. Psychological theories
a. organize scientific observations.
b. explain observed facts.
c. generate hypotheses.
d. do all of these things.

d

9. Which research method runs the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?
a. naturalistic observation
b. the case study
c. experimentation
d. the survey

b

10. Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as
a. naturalistic observation.
b. the double-blind procedure.
c. random sampling.
d. replication.

c

11. A correlation of +1.00 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that
a. higher levels of popularity among peers is associated with greater physical height in children.
b. there is very little relationship between children's height and their popularity.
c. being unusually short or tall has a negative impact on children's popularity.
d. children's height has no causal impact on their popularity.

a

12. In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage were assigned to the ________ group.
a. survey
b. control
c. experimental
d. correlational

b

13. In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the
a. control condition.
b. independent variable.
c. dependent variable.
d. placebo.

b

14. In a well-controlled experiment, researchers seek to minimize
a. confounding variables.
b. informed consent.
c. replication.
d. random assignment.

a

15. Testing your ability to recall information you have just studied improves your long-term retention of that information. Psychologists have referred to this as
a. SQ3R.
b. replication.
c. the testing effect.
d. positive psychology.

c

1. Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
a. glial cells.
b. dendrites.
c. hormones.
d. endorphins.

d

2. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the
a. axon terminals.
b. synaptic gaps.
c. glial cells.
d. endocrine glands.

b

3. The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are
a. stem cells.
b. interneurons.
c. motor neurons.
d. sensory neurons.

b

4. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and ________ blood sugar levels.
a. raises; raises
b. lowers; lowers
c. raises; lowers
d. lowers; raises

a

5. Which hormone enables contractions associated with birthing and milk flow during nursing?
a. insulin
b. serotonin
c. oxytocin
d. epinephrine

c

6. Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
a. a brain lesion
b. an interneuron
c. a PET scan
d. a hemispherectomy

c

7. After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her
a. amygdala.
b. hypothalamus.
c. cerebellum.
d. corpus callosum.

c

8. The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
a. thalamus.
b. amygdala.
c. hippocampus.
d. hypothalamus.

d

9. Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to
a. homeostasis.
b. alcohol dependence.
c. schizophrenia.
d. Parkinson's disease.

b

10. Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
a. occipital lobes
b. frontal lobes
c. temporal lobes
d. parietal lobes

b

11. Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
a. autonomic nervous system
b. left cerebral hemisphere
c. somatic nervous system
d. right cerebral hemisphere

b

12. Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are
a. less similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and less similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.
b. more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.
c. equally similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.
d. more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and equally similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.

b

13. In emphasizing that heredity's effects on behavior depend on a person's home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of
a. tomography.
b. neurogenesis.
c. lateralization.
d. nature-nurture interactions.

d

14. The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of
a. epigenetics.
b. natural selection.
c. behavior genetics.
d. brain plasticity.

b

15. Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?
a. brain plasticity
b. lateralization
c. mutations
d. homeostasis

c

1. An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
a. away from; toward
b. away from; away from
c. toward; away from
d. toward; toward

a

2. To excite or inhibit an action potential in a receiving neuron, a neurotransmitter must cross the
a. axon.
b. synaptic gap.
c. glial cell.
d. endocrine glands.

b

3. The release of ________ to muscle cell receptors triggers muscle contractions.
a. ACh
b. serotonin
c. dopamine
d. adrenaline

a

4. The peripheral nervous system consists of
a. association areas.
b. the spinal cord.
c. the reticular formation.
d. sensory and motor neurons.

d

5. Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a
a. hemispherectomy.
b. severed spinal cord.
c. split brain.
d. reward deficiency syndrome.

b

6. To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)
a. MRI.
b. PET scan.
c. EEG.
d. brain lesion.

c

7. The visual cortex is located in the
a. occipital lobes.
b. parietal lobes.
c. temporal lobes.
d. association areas.

a

8. Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
a. multiple sclerosis.
b. brain plasticity.
c. auditory hallucinations.
d. irritability.

d

9. The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as
a. the amygdala.
b. reward centers.
c. the reticular formation.
d. association areas.

d

10. Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates
a. hemispherectomy.
b. tomography.
c. neurogenesis.
d. plasticity.

d

11. Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of
a. Freudian psychologists.
b. behavior geneticists.
c. evolutionary psychologists.
d. neurologists.

b

12. Chromosomes are composed of
a. epigenetic molecules.
b. synapses.
c. neurotransmitters.
d. deoxyribonucleic acid.

d

13. Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
a. fraternal twins who were raised together.
b. identical twins who were raised apart.
c. fraternal twins who were raised apart.
d. identical twins who were raised together.

c

14. If chronic child abuse alters a victim's gene expression in such a fashion as to facilitate depression and suicide, this would be said to illustrate
a. homeostasis.
b. an epigenetic
c. multiple sclerosis.
d. hemispherectomy.

b

15. Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to
a. oxytocin.
b. lateralization.
c. brain plasticity.
d. genetic predispositions.

d

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