Even though biology is a broad field of study, _______ serves as a central theme that unifies all of biology.
Evolution. Evolutionary theorist Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote that without the light of evolution, biology "becomes a pile of sundry facts some of them interesting or curious but making no meaningful picture as a whole."
The life-supporting environments of Earth constitute the _____.
Biosphere. The biosphere consists of all of the environments on Earth that support life.
Most plants are _____.
Producers. Producers are organisms that can make their own food, as plants do through photosynthesis.
What is the fundamental unit of life?
The cell. The simplest unit of life is the cell, and all organisms are composed of cells.
Gene technology has made it possible for bacteria to express human genes. Why is this possible?
All organisms share a common genetic code. Thus, bacteria are able to read and express human genes
Based on diversity, life is divided into Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. These groupings are called _____.
In what way(s) is the science of biology influencing and changing our culture?
by helping us understand the relevance of evolution to human health, by revealing how mutations in genes can lead to disease, by providing new tools for forensic investigations
How does taxonomy assist biologists?
by categorizing diverse items into smaller and smaller numbers of groups
A newly discovered multicellular organism obtains food by digesting dead organisms. Such an organism is most likely a member of the kingdom ______.
Members of the kingdom Plantae differ from members of the other kingdoms of Eukarya in that most members of the kingdom Plantae ______.
Produce their own food
In his book The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that species living today descended from a succession of ancestral species. What mechanism did Darwin propose to explain how evolution occurs?
What mechanism explains why polar bears are white and bears found farther south have a darker color?
Which of these scenarios is the result of natural selection?
the proliferation of pesticide-resistant insects
What is required for natural selection to occur?
individual variation, inheritance, unequal reproductive success
What does adaptation mean in a biological context?
the accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time
Over a span of two decades, scientists measured changes in the beak size of a population of Galápagos ground finches. This ______.
provided evidence of natural selection in action
How does discovery science compare to hypothesis-driven science?
Discovery science depends on verifiable observations and measurements but does not require formal hypothesis testing.
What name is given to a proposed explanation for a set of observations?
A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question.
Trans fat can best be described as a __________.
non-natural form of fat produced through manufacturing processes
What best describes a theory?
a comprehensive explanation of natural phenomena supported by abundant evidence
In science, theories _____.
can tie together a large number of observations that previously seemed unrelated
What best describes the culture of science and how scientists work?
Scientists commonly repeat other scientists' experiments to verify their work.
Introduction of new technologies often has unintended consequences. For example, _______.
new technologies have led to devastating environmental consequences
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospital settings indicates that _________.
heritable variations already existed among individuals within the population
What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?
Discovery science is mostly about describing nature, whereas hypothesis-driven science tries to explain nature.
What is the proper components of the scientific method?
observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion
In a scientific experiment, the control group ______.
serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group