Biology Chapter 1

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Even though biology is a broad field of study, _______ serves as a central theme that unifies all of biology.

Evolution. Evolutionary theorist Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote that without the light of evolution, biology "becomes a pile of sundry facts some of them interesting or curious but making no meaningful picture as a whole."

The life-supporting environments of Earth constitute the _____.

Biosphere. The biosphere consists of all of the environments on Earth that support life.

What is an ecosystem?

Both the living and nonliving components of the particular area.

Most plants are _____.

Producers. Producers are organisms that can make their own food, as plants do through photosynthesis.

What is the fundamental unit of life?

The cell. The simplest unit of life is the cell, and all organisms are composed of cells.

What is an example of a prokaryotic cell?

Bacteria are prokaryotes.

Gene technology has made it possible for bacteria to express human genes. Why is this possible?

All organisms share a common genetic code. Thus, bacteria are able to read and express human genes

Based on diversity, life is divided into Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. These groupings are called _____.

Domains

In what way(s) is the science of biology influencing and changing our culture?

by helping us understand the relevance of evolution to human health, by revealing how mutations in genes can lead to disease, by providing new tools for forensic investigations

What is biology?

the scientific study of life

What is not a property of life?

Populations of organisms rarely change over time.

What are the two main processes that ecosystems depend upon?

nutrient recycling and energy flow

Which of the following is not recycled but is lost from ecosystems?

Energy

What is an example of a producer?

An oak tree

Humans are ______.

Consumers

Which of the following structures can perform all the activities required for life?

Cells

Relative to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are usually ______.

Larger and more complex

Humans are composed of ______ cells.

eukaryotic

What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell?

organelles

The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found within the ______.

nucleus

What are eukaryotic genes composed of?

DNA

What is a gene?

a unit of inheritance

The human genome consists of about ______ chemical letters.

3 billion

More than half of all known species are ______.

insects

Taxonomy is the ______.

naming and classifying of species

How does taxonomy assist biologists?

by categorizing diverse items into smaller and smaller numbers of groups

Which domain(s) consist(s) of prokaryotic cells?

Bacteria and Archaea

Which kingdom of Eukarya consists primarily of unicellular organisms?

Protista

A newly discovered multicellular organism obtains food by digesting dead organisms. Such an organism is most likely a member of the kingdom ______.

Fungi

Members of the kingdom Plantae differ from members of the other kingdoms of Eukarya in that most members of the kingdom Plantae ______.

Produce their own food

In his book The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that species living today descended from a succession of ancestral species. What mechanism did Darwin propose to explain how evolution occurs?

Natural Selection

What mechanism explains why polar bears are white and bears found farther south have a darker color?

Natural Selection

What is the basis of natural selection?

unequal reproductive success

Which of these scenarios is the result of natural selection?

the proliferation of pesticide-resistant insects

The branch of biology that explains both the diversity and the unity of life is ______.

Evolution

Which of these is most closely associated with Darwin?

Natural Selection

What is required for natural selection to occur?

individual variation, inheritance, unequal reproductive success

Unequal reproductive success ______.

Can lead to natural selection

What does adaptation mean in a biological context?

the accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time

What accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs?

artificial selection

Over a span of two decades, scientists measured changes in the beak size of a population of Galápagos ground finches. This ______.

provided evidence of natural selection in action

How does discovery science compare to hypothesis-driven science?

Discovery science depends on verifiable observations and measurements but does not require formal hypothesis testing.

Which of these is a key feature of the scientific method?

Scientific hypotheses must be testable.

What name is given to a proposed explanation for a set of observations?

A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question.

Trans fat can best be described as a __________.

non-natural form of fat produced through manufacturing processes

What best describes a theory?

a comprehensive explanation of natural phenomena supported by abundant evidence

In science, theories _____.

can tie together a large number of observations that previously seemed unrelated

What best describes the culture of science and how scientists work?

Scientists commonly repeat other scientists' experiments to verify their work.

Introduction of new technologies often has unintended consequences. For example, _______.

new technologies have led to devastating environmental consequences

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospital settings indicates that _________.

heritable variations already existed among individuals within the population

Science is ______.

the inquiry-based effort to describe and explain nature

What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?

Discovery science is mostly about describing nature, whereas hypothesis-driven science tries to explain nature.

Discovery science is primarily based on ______.

Observation

A hypothesis is a(n) ______.

tentative answer to a question

What is the proper components of the scientific method?

observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion

In a scientific experiment, the control group ______.

serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group

How do hypotheses differ from theories?

Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses.

Antibiotic resistance evolves in bacteria because ______.

the presence of antibiotics favors bacteria that already have genes for resistance

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