What are the 2 Routes of entry of pathogens in our body
Mucosal Surfaces (Airway, Gastrointestinal tract, Reproductive tract) & External epithilia (External surface, Wounds and abrasions, Insect bites)
What immune response is determined genetically
Innate or Natural Immunity
What immune response is developed by an individual during lifetime on the basis of exposure to different immune challenges
Adaptive or Acquired Immunity.
What are the 2 types of Adaptive immunity
Cell-mediated & Humoral Immunity.
What Adaptive immunity response is mediated by T-cells
What Adaptive immunity response is mediated by Antibodies (are gycoproteins produced by plasma cells. B cells differentiate into plasma cells in response to antigenic stimulation)
Cells that do NOT have receptors specific for an antigen belong to what part of the immune system
What are the types of cells under the Innate Immune System
Monocyte/Macrophgaes, Granulocytes (eg. neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil/mast cells), Dendritic cells, Natural killer cells, B1 cells.
Monocytes (about 2-10% of WBC in blood) differentiate into what in tissues
What are the Characteristic macrophage functions of the Monocyte
highly phagocytic, cytokine production, antigen presentation, microbicidal, scavenger cell of the body.
What shape is the nucleus of the Monocyte
Describe the Maturation scheme of the Monocyte
stem cell - monoblast - promonocyte - monocyte (blood) - macrophage (tissue).
What cells in the Innate Immune system activate T cells and initiate Adaptive Immune Response
Dendritic Cells (make up < 1% in blood & tissue)
What are the Characteristic functions of Dendritic Cells
Antigen presentation to the cells of adaptive immune system.
What cells are predominant in white blood cell in humans
Neutrophil (40-75% of total WBC)
What are the Characteristic functions of Neutrophils
Highly Phagocytic, Killing of Microorganisms (Microbicidal)
What cells function is the killing of antibody-coated parasites through release of granule contents (phagocytic, but not a primary function), they are cytoxic to worms and initiate allergic reactions through activation of Mast cells
What cells are major players in ALLERGIC reactions, may contribute to resistance to PARASITIC infections, and also contribute to inflammatory reactions
Basophils & Mast cells
What cells are found in all connective tissue, especially near epithelial surfaces
What cells are larger than T & B cells and their function is to kill virus infected cells & tumor cells
Natural Killer (NK) cells
What T cells are part of the Innate Immune system
(Gamma & Delta) T cells
What are the functions of (g/d) T cells
They release cytokines in the event of infection & strengthen the power of innate immune response.
What cells make up the Acquired Immune System
Lymphocytes (T cells (alpha/beta, NOT Gamma) & B cells) (most of these exist as resting cells, Not activated)
T cell maturation begins where and is completed where
Begins in the Bone Marrow & is completed in the Thymus.
What are the 2 types of (alpha/beta) T cells
CD4 (Helper T cells) & CD8 (Cytotoxic T Cells)
Helper T Cells are of 2 types & perform what functions
Th1 (Secretes IL-2 and IFN-g; help CTL's and macrophages) & Th2 (Secretes IL-4, IL-5; help B cells)
CD8 T cells function primarily as
Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL)
Upon activation CTLs killer function is mediated by inducing
Apoptosis of Target Cells (via death receptors and granules)
B Lymphocytes have complete maturation where
Helper T cells recognize processed antigen when bound to what platform molecule
MHC Class II
Cytotoxic T cells recognize the processed antigen when bound to what platform molecule
MHC Class I
What cells produce antibodies (B cells) or cytotoxic and helper functions (T cells)
B Lymphocytes have what surface molecules
BCR (surface Immunoglobulin) & MHC class II
Upon activation by antigen, B cell differentiates into plasma cell, which secretes high amounts of what
Cells of the immune system develop Primarily in the
Cells of the immune system also mature in what organ
What area in the Thymus is the location of Immature tymocytes with cortical epithelium and scattered macrophages & is the site of positive selection
What are in the Thymus is the location of more mature Thymocytes with macrophages & dendritic cells & is the site of negative selection
Maturation of Thymocytes occurs in the
Scattered Macrophages in the cortex help eliminate what
Mature T cells migrate into the Medullary Region and eventually enter the blood via
Venules in Corticomedullary Junction
What organ in the body is the Site of Immune Responses to Blood-Bourne Antigens
What in the body are the sites of Immune response to Tissue-Borne Antigens
The Medulla of Lymph Nodes are rich in
Macrophages & Plasma Cells
The Cortex of Lymph Nodes is comprised of what cells
B & T Cells, primary and secondary follicles (B cell rich) interspersed by a paracortical region (rich in T cells).