An explicit or implicit reference to a fictional, mythological, or historical person, place or event outside the story. The narrator does not explain the nature or relevance of this but relies on the reader's knowledge.
A comparison that demonstrates the similarity or similarities between two things or concepts.
Ex.)"Citizens are to a president as a solar system is to a galaxy."
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines.
Ex.)"We shall not flag or fail. We shall go to the end..."
The opposite. A figure of speech characterized by strongly contrasting words, sentences, or ideas in a balanced parallel structure.
Ex.) The vases of the classical period are but the reflection of classical beauty; the cases of the archaic period are beauty itself.
A short, often witty statement that contains a serious maxim, opinion, or general truth.
Ex.)"Your children need your presence more than your presents."
A figure of speech in which someone (usually but not always absent) or some abstract quality or a non-existent personage is addressed as though present.
Ex.)"For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel.
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him."
The suggestion or implied meaning of a word as contrasted to its literal meaning.
Ex.)"You are such a snake" implies that you are slimy and evil.
The literal dictionary definition of a word.
Ex.)"Stop" means to literally end your current action.
The accurate, careful use of words.
Types: Formal, Informal, Colloquial, Slang
Extravagant exaggeration, usually for rhetorical effect.
Ex.)"I am so hungry I could eat a horse!"
The use of words or figures of speech to create a mental picture. It exploits all five senses to create a powerful impression.
Ex.)"The vibrant and purple meadows smelled like lavender."
A term that suggest some sort of discrepancy between appearance and reality.
Speech in which what is said is opposite to what is meant.
Ex.)" You are SO smart!" being said after a stupid action.
Most effective when characters make fateful choices based on information the reader realizes is incorrect.
Ex.)When Romeo kills himself thinking that Juliet is dead when if fact, she is only in a deep sleep waiting for him.
A situation that demonstrates an incongruence between what the reader expects or presumes to be appropriate and what actually occurs.
A comparison between things without using like or as.
A comparison made by mentioning an object associated with another.
Ex.)"The Crown" refers to the king or queen.
A rhetorical device making an assertion which on one level appears to be a contradiction but which on another level may be actually true.
Ex.)"Nobody goes to the restaurant, its too crowded."
The arrangement of similarly constructed clauses, sentences, or verse lines in a pairing or other sequence suggesting some relation between them.
Ex.)"The more we do, the more we can do."
When an inanimate object or abstract concept is endowed with human features.
A play on words that are similar in sound but have different meanings.
"Life isn't fair for a baby. They always get the bum wrap."
When a word is simply repeated within a sentence, with no particular placement for emphasis.
Ex.)"If you think that you can win, then you can win anything."
An explicit comparison between two things using "like" or "as".
Ex.)"Life is like an onion."
The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.
Ex.)"To your house we are going."
The writer's attitude toward the material and or readers. (playful, serious, angry, happy, etc.)
Ex.)"I hate you and wish you would die!" conveys a tone of extreme hatred.
A figure of speech that represents something as being less important than it really is.
Ex.)"A friend scratches your car and you say, "No big deal" even though it will cost you hundreds of dollars to fix and honestly is a "big deal".