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Chapters 1-4

1. A hundred and fifty years ago girls matured sexually at age 16. Today they do so at _____ years of age.

a. 11
b. 12.5
c. 13
d. 15

A.12.5

2. Which of the following statements about children in the U.S. is false?

a. Children who grow up in low-income homes are less likely to achieve in school
b. Proportionately Hispanic and Black children are about three times as likely to be
poor than their white peers
c. The younger the child, the more likely they are to live in extreme poverty
d. It is now estimated that only 10 percent of fourth graders in U.S. public schools
cannot read at grade level

d. It is now estimated that only 10 percent of fourth graders in U.S. public schools
cannot read at grade level

3. According to the text, U.S. children and adolescents experience various health and mortality problems.
Which of the following statements is false?

a. Less than 20% of adolescents meet current physical activity recommendations of 1
hour of physical activity a day
b. About 10% of youth do not have health care coverage
c. The percent of children born at low birth weight has increased
d. More police officers are killed by firearms than preschoolers

d. More police officers are killed by firearms than preschoolers

4. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults.
Which of the following is true about their health-risk behaviors?

a. Over 40% of students had been bullied on school property in the past 12 months
b. Almost 25% of students had seriously considered attempting suicide in the past 12
months
c. Less than 20% of students had carried a weapon in the past 30 days
d. Over 50% of students had an alcoholic drink in the past 30 days

c. Less than 20% of students had carried a weapon in the past 30 days

5. There is a potential for risky behavior among youth in all facets of American life. The social, economic, and
political circumstances that increase adolescent risk taking include all but which of the following?

a. Lack of legitimate opportunity
b. Racial, class, age, and ethnicity equalities
c. The "cult of individualism"
d. The uncertainty of contemporary social life

b. Racial, class, age, and ethnicity equalities

6. According to the text, youths who have been arrested four or more times and perpetuate a striking majority of
serious criminal acts are known as the:

a. "chronic juvenile offenders"
b. "terminally criminal"
c. "deviant minority"
d. "recidivists 10 percent"

a. "chronic juvenile offenders"

7. A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control
over his wife and children is:

a. paternalistic
b. maternalistic
c. egalitarian
d. matriarchal

a. paternalistic

8. Which of the following statements about children in the Middle Ages is false?

a. Children of all classes were subjected to stringent rules and regulations.
b. Girls were educated at home and married in their early teens.
c. Children were expected to undertake responsibilities early in their lives.
d. The parent-child relationship was particularly close and loving.

d. The parent-child relationship was particularly close and loving.

9. Voltaire's, Rousseau's, and Locke's vision produced a period known as the _____________________, which
stressed a humanistic view of life, freedom, family, reason, and law.

a. Dark Ages
b. Enlightenment
c. Renaissance
d. Classical period

b. Enlightenment

10. These allowed for the appointment of overseers to place destitute or neglected children as servants in the
homes of the affluent, where they were trained in agricultural, trade, or domestic services.

a. Poor Laws
b. Primogeniture
c. Parens patriae legislation
d. Chins Doctrine

a. Poor Laws

11. Which of the following best describes the parens patriae philosophy of the juvenile court ?

a. best interests of the child
b. best interests of the government
c. best interests of the community
d. deterrence, retribution, and rehabilitation

a. best interests of the child

12. Several events led to reforms and nourished the eventual development of the juvenile justice system, which
of the following is not one of those events?

a. Urbanization
b. The child-saving movement
c. Institutions for the care of delinquent and neglected children, including houses of
refuge
d. Passage of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

d. Passage of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

13. Which of the following statements best describes the child savers?

a. They relocated needy urban children to foster families in the Western U.S.
b. They lobbied to close the juvenile justice system because of its record of abuses.
c. They raised the standard of living for the urban poor by providing job training.
d. They lobbied for a separate legal status for children.

b. They lobbied to close the juvenile justice system because of its record of abuses

14. According to the text, what established juvenile delinquency as a legal concept?

a. Illinois Juvenile Court Act
b. Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control (JDP) Act
c. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
d. Elizabethan Poor Laws

a. Illinois Juvenile Court Act

15. The principles motivating reformers who sought a separate justice system for juveniles included all but
which of the following?

a. Children should not be held as accountable as adult transgressors
b. The objective of the juvenile justice system is to treat and rehabilitate rather than
punish
c. Disposition should not take into consideration special circumstances and needs of the youth
d. The system should avoid the trappings of the adult criminal process with all its
confusing rules and procedures

c. Disposition should not take into consideration special circumstances and needs of the youth

16. Which of the following statements is false regarding the initial establishment of juvenile courts?

a. Jurisdiction was based primarily on a child's noncriminal actions and status, not
strictly on a violation of criminal law
b. Parens patriae philosophy predominated
c. The process was paternalistic rather than adversarial
d. Verdicts were based on beyond a reasonable doubt

d. Verdicts were based on beyond a reasonable doubt

17. In the 1960s and 1970s, the U.S. Supreme Court radically altered the juvenile justice system when it issued
a series of decisions that established the right of juveniles to receive due process of law. Which right is false?

a. The right to counsel
b. The right to confront witnesses
c. The right to notice of charges
d. The right to bail

d. The right to bail

18. Many states enacted or strengthened existing parental liability statutes that make parents criminally liable
for the actions of their delinquent children. These laws can generally fall into one of three categories. Which category is false?

a. Vicarious involvement
b. Civil liability
c. General involvement
d. Criminal liability

a. Vicarious involvement

19. Which of the following statements about parental liability laws is false?

a. Some states require parents to reimburse the government for the costs of detention
or care of their children.
b. Some states require parents to make restitution payments to victims.
c. All states have yet to place limits on the amount of recovery victims can receive.
d. Some states require parents and children to participate in counseling and
community service activities.

c. All states have yet to place limits on the amount of recovery victims can receive.

Jennifer is a 15 year-old female found in a local park by police at 1 a.m. drinking alcohol. She was taken into the police station and reported that she ran away from home because of physical and sexual abuse by her stepfather.

20. Running away and underage consumption of alcohol represent:

a. delinquent offenses
b. status offenses
c. stepping stones to delinquency
d. category one crimes

b. status offenses

21. States classify status offenders using different terms. Which term listed is false?

a. Unruly child
b. Incorrigible child
c. Child in need of supervision
d. Delinquent

d. Delinquent

Paul is 14 years old and was involved in vandalizing the local high school where he attends causing $1,500 in damages. He was arrested and is set to appear in juvenile court.

22. What is the term that refers to a minor child who has been found to violate the penal code?
a. Juvenile delinquent
b. Status offender
c. Wayward minor
d. Chronic offender

a. Juvenile delinquent

23. If found delinquent, his case disposition ideally will be based on what?

a. community desires
b. victim preference
c. need for treatment
d. need for punishment

c. need for treatment

24. When at least one person is arrested, charged, or turned over to the court for prosecution, a crime has been:

a. "solved"
b. "recorded"
c. "indexed"
d. "cleared"

d. "cleared"

25. The UCR uses three methods to express crime data. Which of the following is not one of these three methods?

a. The actual number of crimes reported to the police and arrests made.
b. The actual number of crimes for which the suspects were convicted.
c. The FBI computes crime rates per 100,000 people.
d. The FBI computes changes in the number and rate of crime over time.

b. The actual number of crimes for which the suspects were convicted.

26. What does a UCR-reported murder rate of 4.8 mean?

a. About five people were murdered.
b. About five people in every 100,000 were murdered.
c. About five people a day were murdered.
d. About five people were arrested for murder per 10,000 arrests.

b. About five people in every 100,000 were murdered.

27. ________________ are questionnaire or survey techniques that ask subjects to reveal their own
participation in delinquent or criminal acts.

a. Victim surveys
b. Official records
c. Self reports
d. Uniform Crime Reports

c. Self reports

28. In 2008, juveniles were responsible for about ____ percent of all arrests for violent crimes.

a. 14
b. 24
c. 33
d. 47

a.14

29. The annual national self-report survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders conducted by the Institute for Social
Research (ISR) is called ________________________________.

a. National Crime Victimization Survey
b. Monitoring the Future
c. National Survey on Drug Use and Health
d. Safe Schools/Healthy Students

b. Monitoring the Future

30. Among the factors that influence delinquency rate trends, which is false?

a. The general crime rate follows the proportion of young males in the population.
b. As the number of gun-carrying (toting seems too informal) students increases, so does the seriousness of violent delinquency.
c. As the level of social problems increases, such as unwed mothers and racial conflict, so do delinquency rates.
d. There is strong association between delinquency rates and the immigrant
population.

d. There is strong association between delinquency rates and the immigrant
population.

31. Economist Steven Levitt believes that ___________________ may help control delinquency.

a. stricter adoption policies
b. punitive policies
c. psychotherapy
d. religious involvement

b. punitive policies

32. For which of the following acts are females more likely than males to be taken into custody?

a. robbery
b. forcible rape
c. truancy
d. running away

d. running away

33. ____________________________ are responsible for the majority of serious delinquent acts.

a. Lower-class youth
b. Middle-class youth
c. Upper-class, rebellious youth
d. Social class is irrelevant to delinquency

a. Lower-class youth

34. Chronic recidivists made up about _____ percent of both Philadelphia cohorts in research conducted by
Wolfgang and his associates.

a. 1
b. 3
c. 6
d. 18

c. 6

35. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Kids who engage in the most serious forms of delinquency are more likely to be
members of the lower class
b. Chronic offenders commit a significant portion of all delinquent acts
c. Those who demonstrate antisocial tendencies at a very early age are more likely to
commit more crimes for a longer duration
d. All of the above are true

d. All of the above are true

36. According to the text, which of the following is not a childhood risk factor for persistent delinquency?

a. parental psychopathology
b. low intelligence
c. small family size
d. neighborhood disadvantage

c. small family size

37. Childhood risk factors for persistent delinquency include all of the following, except:

a. poor cognitive development
b. family violence
c. poor academic performance
d. interracial background

d. interracial background

38. According to the National Crime Victimization Survey:

a. Females are more often the victims of delinquency than males.
b. Older people are more often targets than younger people.
c. Crime victimization tends to be interracial.
d. The chance of victimization declines with age.

d. The chance of victimization declines with age.

A national newspaper reported on the juvenile crime statistics across the United States. The data, based on police records, demonstrated a decline in juvenile crime. In rebuttal, a renowned criminologist released his findings from a national victimization survey that shows an increase in juvenile crime occurred in the past year. In clarifying the differences in the findings, one may wish to point out issues between the two measures.

39. Which of the following statements about official arrest data is false

a. Victim surveys show that less than half of all victims report the crime to police.
b. The arrest data count only adolescents who have been caught.
c. Arrest decision criteria are similar among police agencies.
d. Victimless crimes, such as drug and alcohol use, are significantly undercounted
using this measure

c. Arrest decision criteria are similar among police agencies.

Robert is a 13-year old African American male living in a deteriorated neighborhood that lacks the economic and educational resources needed to succeed. He was arrested for physically assaulting another
adolescent. Due to a previous record, Robert was charged and detained until trial, where ultimately, he was sentenced to 6 months in a juvenile detention facility. James is a white 13-year old male from a middleclass family, who was involved in a physical altercation. He was diverted from the formal juvenile justice system, given 50 hours of community service, and released to his parents.

40. As Robert and James mature, what can be expected?
a. Regardless of their race, sex, or social class, they will commit less crime as they
age.
b. Due to his one prior arrest, Robert will be a chronic offender.
c. James will co-offend with peers more.
d. Both James and Robert will continue to commit more crimes due to their early
start at a very young age.

a. Regardless of their race, sex, or social class, they will commit less crime as they
age.

Clare is a 14-year old female who lives with her 29-year old mother and three younger siblings in a two bedroom apartment in a housing project. At school, Clare has acted out in class and has been held back a grade-level twice. Clare has been arrested for truancy, running away, and alcohol and drug use.

41. Which of the following risk factors for persistent delinquency is not present in the scenario provided?

a. Family violence
b. Poor academic performance
c. Family structure and large size
d. Neighborhood disadvantage

a. Family violence

42. While the vast majority of delinquency is committed by males, which one of Clare's offenses is most common for girls?

a. Truancy
b. Running away
c. Alcohol use
d. Disorderly conduct

b. Running away

Tim is a white, 17-year old, National Honor Society student who was physically assaulted in the hallway between classes by John, a white, 16-year old, high school football player because of an alleged personal insult. Both students have mutual friends and attended social events as friends in the past.

43. In comparison to his grandparents, Tim's likelihood of being a victim of a crime is:

a. 5 times less likely than his grandparents
b. as likely as his grandparents
c. 10 times more likely than his grandparents
d. None of the above

c. 10 times more likely than his grandparents

44. According to choice theorists, offenders:

a. are rational actors who choose to crime because they believe their actions will be
beneficial
b. are compelled to engage in crime because of specific physical or psychological conditions
c. developed abnormal personality types
d. have hormonal imbalances that have not been detected

a. are rational actors who choose to crime because they believe their actions will be
beneficial

45. According to __________________ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions such as
temperament, personality, hormones, or genetics.

a. social learning
b. choice
c. trait
d. social structure

c. trait

46. Which of the following factors that motivate a potential delinquent to act on his or her antisocial propensities is false?

a. Kids choose delinquency when they believe they have little chance of becoming financially successful in the conventional world
b. Some kids embrace deviant lifestyles, such as joining a gang, in order to
compensate for their feelings of social powerlessness.
c. Kids who are granted a lot of time to socialize with peers are just as likely to
engage in deviant behaviors as those who are closely supervised.
d. Some delinquent youth have the false belief that "crime pays."

c. Kids who are granted a lot of time to socialize with peers are just as likely to
engage in deviant behaviors as those who are closely supervised.

47. According to routine activity theory, the volume and distribution of predatory crimes in a particular area and at a particular time is influenced by the interaction of three variables. Which of the following is not one of these variables?

a. the availability of suitable targets
b. the absence of capable guardians
c. the presence of motivated offenders
d. the absence of law enforcement

d. the absence of law enforcement

48. Which of the following statements about specific deterrence is false?

a. Kids who are placed in a juvenile justice facility are just as likely to become adult
criminals as those treated with greater leniency
b. The association between punishment and desistance is logical, and there is plenty of evidence that punitive measures alone deter future delinquency
c. A history of prior arrests, convictions, and punishments has proven to be the best predictor of re-arrest among young offenders released from correctional
institutions
d. Punishment strategies may stigmatize kids and help lock offenders into a
delinquent career

b. The association between punishment and desistance is logical, and there is plenty of evidence that punitive measures alone deter future delinquency

49. According to the text, which of the following is not among the problems that exist with relying on a deterrence-based strategy to control delinquency?

a. Juveniles often commit crimes individually; thus peer pressure has no impact on the deterrence of the law.
b. Minors tend to be less capable of making mature judgments or rational decisions.
c. The most serious delinquents may neither fully comprehend the seriousness of their acts nor appreciate their consequences.
d. Many juvenile offenders are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, which might impair their decision-making ability.

a. Juveniles often commit crimes individually; thus peer pressure has no impact on the deterrence of the law.

50. Situational crime prevention strategies aim to reduce opportunities to commit delinquent acts through all means provided except:

a. Target-hardening techniques, such as unbreakable glass or a locked gate.
b. Installation of street lights and closed-circuit TV cameras.
c. Publishing names of offenders in the local papers.
d. Early intervention programs that focus on improving the general well-being of
individual children.

d. Early intervention programs that focus on improving the general well-being of
individual children.

51. Which of the following criminologists is credited with the development of the theory of criminal atavism?

a. Charles Goring
b. Enrico Ferri
c. Cesare Lombroso
d. Raffaele Garofalo

c. Cesare Lombroso

52. Research which links antisocial behavior to a person's diet draws from which theoretical perspective?

a. biosocial theories
b. choice theory
c. behaviorism
d. personality trait theory

a. biosocial theories

53. It has been suggested that children who manifest behavioral disturbances may have neurological deficits,
such as damage to the hemispheres of the brain; this is sometimes referred to as:

a. bipolar disorder
b. cognitive dissonance
c. minimal brain dysfunction
d. autism

c. minimal brain dysfunction

54. The _______________________ argues that the link between learning disabilities and delinquency is
caused by the side effects of learning disabilities such as impulsiveness and the inability to learn from social cues.

a. school failure rationale
b. susceptibility rationale
c. reactionary rationale
d. accentuating mediating rationale

b. susceptibility rationale

55. The _______________________ assumes that LD leads to poor school behavior which leads to frustration,
negative self image, and acting out.

b. susceptibility rationale
b. susceptibility rationale
c. reactionary rationale
d. accentuating mediating rationale

b. susceptibility rationale

56. Biosocial theorists believe antisocial behavior characteristics and mental disorders have a genetic influence.
Which of the following statements is an indirect connection?

a. Antisocial behavior is inherited.
b. The genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children.
c. Genetic makeup may shape friendship patterns and orient people toward conventional or anti-social friends.
d. Genetic abnormality is directly linked to a variety of antisocial behaviors.

c. Genetic makeup may shape friendship patterns and orient people toward conventional or anti-social friends.

57. Which of the following theories best reflects the branch of psychology that holds that the human
personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood?

a. Psychodynamic theory
b. Behavioral theory
c. Cognitive theory
d. General deterrence theory

a. Psychodynamic theory

58. The __________________ develops through interactions with parents and others and represents the
conscience and the moral rules that are shared by most adults.

a. superego
b. Id
c. Ego
d. Self

a. superego

59. According to the text, what disorder is not linked to antisocial youth?

a. Oppositional defiant disorder
b. Dyslexia
c. Bulimia/anorexia
d. Conduct disorder

b. Dyslexia

60. According to the text, behaviorism was popularized by Harvard professor:

a. G. H. Mead
b. B. F. Skinner
c. S. Pinker
d. Goffman

c. S. Pinker

61. Of the hypotheses formulated to explain the media-violence linkage, which of the following is false?

a. Extensive viewing may result in a large number of aggressive scripts stored in
long-term memory which can then be used as a guide for social behavior.
b. Extensive and repeated exposure to media violence sensitizes kids to real-world violence, thus decreasing aggression.
c. Media violence allows aggressive youths to justify their behavior.
d. Those who watch television frequently view aggression and violence as common,
socially acceptable behavior.

b. Extensive and repeated exposure to media violence sensitizes kids to real-world violence, thus decreasing aggression.

62. The cognitive approach is most associated with _________________ who hypothesized that reasoning
processes develop in an orderly fashion, beginning at birth and continuing until age 12 and older.

a. Lombroso
b. Freud
c. Kohlberg
d. Piaget

d. Piaget

63. Cognitive theorists contend that chronically delinquent youths use fewer cues than most people to process
information, use violence to get what they want, and react in a volatile fashion to the slightest provocation because they:

a. have learned improper scripts
b. modeled violent behavior from TV
c. are unrestrained by formal consequences
d. have severe hormonal imbalances

a. have learned improper scripts

64. _____________________ are impulsive individuals who lack the ability to examine their own motives.

a. Extraverts
b. Neurotics
c. Sadists
d. Defiants

a. Extraverts

65. People commit crimes when they model their behavior after others they see being rewarded for the same
acts; behavior is reinforced by rewards and extinguished by punishment. Which of the following theories does this best illustrate?

a. Psychodynamic
b. Behavioral
c. Cognitive
d. General deterrence theory

b. Behavioral

Mike is walking down the street and notices an elderly female with shopping bags in both hands and her
purse dangling from her wrist. After assessing the situation, he decides to grab her purse and run as there
are few people on the sidewalk to slow his escape. Mike hopes to find cash in the purse so that he can buy food for his homeless family.

66. What is the basic assumption of choice theory?

a. People have free will.
b. Genetics are influential.
c. Crime is a product of abnormal personality.
d. Crime is learned.

a. People have free will.

Eric, 10 years old, presents with a variety of symptoms that include acting without thinking, difficulty regulating emotions, and an inability to organize work. He requires constant supervision at school and
displays other antisocial behaviors. Eric's mother stated this behavior has been evident for the past 4 years.
She also informs you that in the past 5 years, Eric refuses to eat what she cooks and will only eat fast food.

67. Given the scenario, a possible cause for Eric's behavior may include?

a. Increased levels of testosterone
b. Impairment in executive functioning
c. Unruly peers
d. Poor diet

d. Poor diet

Becca, 12 years old, has bullied other students for the past year. As a social worker, you have observed her
family for the past 6 months and note the following: evidence of family violence, and the television acting as a babysitter for Becca and her siblings. Becca has informed you that she has been present as a victim or perpetrator in violence at home on many occasions and loves the Saw series.

68. ____________________ theory suggests that children who grow up in homes where violence is a way of
life may learn to believe that such behavior is acceptable.

a. Social learning
b. Cognitive
c. Parental deviance
d. Deterrence

a. Social learning

69. Which of the following statements is false?

a. The more often children are exposed to violence within their residential
community the more likely they are to become violent themselves
b. Inappropriate and disrupted social relations have been linked to crime
c. Political unrest and economic stress have been found to precede sharp increases in crime rates
d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases

d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases

70. Which of the following is not one of the critical social factors believed to affect delinquent behaviors presented in the text?

a. interpersonal interactions
d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases
c. community ecological conditions
d. social change

d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases

71. The concept of social disorganization was first recognized by sociologists:

a. Hirschi and Merton
b. Agnew and Lewis
c. Sutherland and Platt
d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases

d. Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate
increases

72. According to the social disorganization view, a healthy, organized community has the ability to regulate itself so that common goals can be achieved; this is referred to as:

a. Social disorganization
b. Cultural transmission
c.social control
d. Social learning

c. social control

73. Relative deprivation refers to a sense of:

a. injustice when the poor and the rich live in close physical proximity to one another
b. alienation present among inner city residents caused by crime, violence, and urban
fear
c. hostility residents feel once their neighborhood is gentrified
d. none of the above

a. injustice when the poor and the rich live in close physical proximity to one another

74. The process of transforming a lower-class area into a middle-class enclave through property rehabilitation
is called:

a. Transitional neighborhoods
b. Cultural transmission
c. Social control
d. Gentrification

d. Gentrification

75. Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?

a. offenders choose to commit crimes because the benefits outweigh the costs
b. communities no longer have the capability of regulating the conduct of residents
c. more individuals who have psychological and physical traits for crime live there
d. youths model the behavior of older residents and internalize pro-social behaviors

b. communities no longer have the capability of regulating the conduct of residents

76. Which of the following statements about communities on the downswing is false?

a. They are likely to experience increases in the number of single-parent families
b. They tend to develop mixed-use areas in which commercial and residential
properties stand side by side
c. Because of racial differences in economic well-being, those left behind are all too often White
d. Poverty becomes highly concentrated as people become despondent and
employment opportunities non-existent

c. Because of racial differences in economic well-being, those left behind are all too often White

77. Which statement is false regarding fear in socially disorganized neighborhoods?

a. As fear increases, quality of life deteriorates.
b. People lose respect for the police who cannot seem to protect and serve the
community.
c. Fear may convince young people that the only way to protect themselves is to join a gang.
d. While doubtful, many perceive the law as legitimate, responsive, and well
equipped to ensure public safety.

d. While doubtful, many perceive the law as legitimate, responsive, and well
equipped to ensure public safety.

78. According to Robert Merton, individuals without acceptable means for obtaining success experience:

a. alienation
b. growth and enrichment
c. empathy
d. anomie

d. anomie

79. According to Agnew's General Strain Theory, adolescents engage in delinquency as a result of
______________________ - the anger, frustration, fear, and other adverse emotions that derive from strain.

a. negative affective states
b. relative deprivation
c. psychopathological anomalies
d. cognitive dissonance

a. negative affective states

80. This source of strain outlined by Robert Agnew can be caused by the loss of a girlfriend, moving to a new
neighborhood, or the divorce of parents.

a. disjunction of expectations and achievements
b. removal of positively valued stimuli
c. presentation of negative stimulus
d. failure to achieve goals

b. removal of positively valued stimuli

81. ____________________is the process of guiding people into acceptable behavior patterns through
information, approval, rewards, and punishments.

a. Gentrification
b. Socialization
c. Cultural transmission
d. Collective efficacy

b. Socialization

82. Which broad sociological category of theories considers socialization to be the key determinant of behavior?

a. Social structure
b. Critical
c. Social process
d. Social reaction

c. Social process

83. Which of the following theorists is most likely to assert that criminal behavior is learned primarily in interpersonal groups?

a. general strain theorist
b. differential association theorist
c. labeling theorist
d. social control theorist

b. differential association theorist

84. Social control theories view delinquency as the result of:

a. the poor and the rich living in close physical proximity to one another
b. living in an area with weakened community institutions
c. an individual having weakened bonds to family, school, and peers
d. a failure to achieve positive goals in life

c. an individual having weakened bonds to family, school, and peers

85. Which element of Hirschi's social bond is illustrated by maintaining a positive image in the community, good work history, and high aspirations for future accomplishments?

a. attachment
b. commitment
c. involvement
d. belief

b. commitment

86. People who have been negatively labeled by formal or informal institutions as a result of their participation,
or alleged participation, in deviant or outlawed behaviors are thought to be:

a. attached
b. degraded
c. stigmatized
d. gentrified

c. stigmatized

87. If a youth continually receives negative feedback from significant others, they will interpret this image as
accurate and their behavior will begin to conform to these negative expectations. This process is called a:

a. self-fulfilling prophecy
b. retrospective reinterpretation
c. specific deterrence
d. runaway juggernaut

a. self-fulfilling prophecy

88. Which of the following theories centers around a view of society in which an elite class uses the law as a means of meeting threats to its status?

a. social control theory
b. critical theory
c. differential association theory
d. general strain theory

b. critical theory

89. Which of the following would best describe a prevention effort advocated by a social structure theorist?

a. midnight basketball leagues to keep youths busy and occupied at night
b. adult mentors working with at risk youths to provide prosocial role models
c. increasing the penalties for delinquency to deter would be offenders
d. community redevelopment including educational programs and job training

d. community redevelopment including educational programs and job training

90. According to the text, restorative justice:

a. is a non-punitive strategy based on healing
b. is concerned with the offender taking responsibility for his actions
c. seeks to return the offender to the community as a full productive member
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

91. Which of the following is not one of the principles of restorative justice?

a. victims, offenders, and communities are the key stakeholders not the justice system
b. victims and communities suffer from crime and they need to be restored
c. offenders have an obligation to make amends and they should do so voluntarily
d. offenders should be removed from the community as punishment for their
misdeeds

d. offenders should be removed from the community as punishment for their
misdeeds

Jay grew up on the south side of Chicago where most of its residents lived in poverty, felt helpless, and had a mistrust of the police and government institutions. While Jay was not arrested or charged with delinquent behaviors, many of his friends and neighborhood kids were members of local gangs and had been arrested. It was evident that the community was unable to control its residents.

92. Given the situation of the residents and that they did not take advantage of opportunities available to them, a(n) _______________resulted where there is little chance of upward mobility.

a. collective efficacy
b. underclass
c. culture of poverty
d. anomie

b. underclass

93. To survive, gangs recruit younger members and pass down delinquent and criminal traditions to ensure survival from one generation to another. This process is known as:

a. cultural transmission
b. relative deprivation
c. social disorganization
d. cultural deviance

a. cultural transmission

94. One mile from Jay's home, a rundown neighborhood was rehabilitated and transformed. Many wealthy
people bought the houses for the short commute into downtown Chicago. This new area is considered:

a. socialized
b. gentrified
c. stigmatized
d. transitioned

b. gentrified

Katie is a 17-year old single mom who takes high school classes online to complete her degree. When completed, her GPA will be 3.5. Katie must also take care of her infant son while living with her parents, who also assist her with him. She works 20 hours a week to pay for some of the expenses and never has time to herself. Prior to her unplanned pregnancy, Katie expected to go to college full-time. Now, everything is on hold and she feels she is in a hopeless situation, has become frustrated, and started selling
pot for greater financial means in order to attend college full-time.

95. What theory may best explain Katie's engagement in her current source of income?

a. General strain theory
b. Social bond theory
c. Critical theory
d. Social disorganization

a. General strain theory

96. Which of the following categories best represents the primary strain Katie feels?

a. disjunction of expectations and achievements
b. removal of positively valued stimuli
c. presentation of negative stimulus
d. failure to achieve goals

D. Failure to achieve goals

97. According to Agnew, adolescents engage in delinquency as a result of:

a. negative affective states
b. failure to form attachments
c. normlessness
d. self-labeling

A. Negative affective states

Dave was arrested for vandalizing his school and found to be delinquent in juvenile court. Prior to and since the latest ruling, his father has made comments that Dave is a "loser," "delinquent," and "criminal," and will never get anywhere but jail. Dave has overheard the comments and can see his father's disappointment, anger and frustration, but believes he is exactly what his father says he is and cannot change. Dave has accepted that he is a "loser" and continues to engage in vandalism and starts to smoke pot
and drink alcohol.

98. What theory best explains Dave's delinquent behavior?
a. Social learning
b. Social reaction
c. Social bond
d. Social structure

B. Social Reaction

Dave was arrested for vandalizing his school and found to be delinquent in juvenile court. Prior to and since the latest ruling, his father has made comments that Dave is a "loser," "delinquent," and "criminal," and will never get anywhere but jail. Dave has overheard the comments and can see his father's disappointment, anger and frustration, but believes he is exactly what his father says he is and cannot change. Dave has accepted that he is a "loser" and continues to engage in vandalism and starts to smoke pot
and drink alcohol.

99. Given Dave's acceptance of his role as a "delinquent" and his subsequent
behaviors, what has been created?

a. Self-fulfilling prophecy
b. Identity crisis
c. Overt pathway
d. Stigmatization

D. stigmatization

100. According to social reaction theory, whenever possible, anything producing stigma is to be avoided, a
philosophy referred to as:

a. de-institutionalization
b. socialization
c. nonintervention
d. deterrence

c. nonintervention

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