Early 1900s U.S. History

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Policies, conditions, and actions during the early 1900s in U.S. history

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Oversaw stock and bond markets

Cause of the Great Depression

lack of diversification, mal-distribution of wealth and income, credit structure, no government insurance of bank deposits, declining exports, international debt structure, overproduction in agriculture continues."

American neutrality during WWII

The circumstances dictated that the US would lean more toward the Allies in Germany. Trade with Germany ceased because of the British blockade. The Germans had strong support in the US because of the German American and Irish Americans. Despite the deluge of speakers and pamphlets from both sides, the national consensus was that the US should stay out of Europe's quarrels."

Credit structure before the Great Depression

credit was too easy and many were heavily in debt

Progressivism

Occurred during economic prosperity. There was a sense of well being that allowed middle class citizens to address the social and economic problems that emerged. believed that society was capable of improvement; felt that progress had occurred haphazardly and recklessly, therefore we need reforms to create order and stability. Response to the social and economic impact of industrialism- curb big business, improve conditions for the consumer, reform political parties- Don't really agree on what reforms needed to take place- occurred during a time of relative economic prosperity: a sense of well being allowed middle- class citizens to address the social and economic problems that had emerged during the depression of the 1890s.

problems with progressive reform

Wealthy people could manipulate the direct primary and the legislature no longer elected state officials, now the people go to pick

Election of 1912

Democratic Candidate Woodrow Wilson vs. Progressive Candidate Theodore Roosevelt vs. Republican Candidate William Howard Taft vs. Social Candidate Eugene Debs. Taft and Roosevelt split the votes of the Republicans party, ends in Wilson winning

Republicans during the 1916 Election

Charles Evans Hughes (supreme court justice). People thought more likely to lead US to war. Southern support. Divided over foreign policy. East wanted to intervene on ally side. Progressives wanted a pro-allied policy.

Teddy Roosevelt's legislative program

"The Square Deal" broadened the use of executive power over the course of his presidency.

Democrats during 1916 Election

Woodrow Wilson running for re-election. Had a platform for peace and reform. "He kept us out of war"

Tammany hall

The Democratic Party organization in Manhattan. It was long notorious for its corrupt ways, the organization recognized with Al Smith, a politician who could move beyond the older style of machine politics and deal with the voters who wanted relief from the injustices of an industrial society. democratic political clubhouse- made sure that city services and jobs were available to those who supported them at the polls

Taft vs. Pinchot

Taft sided with Ballinger and wrote a letter of protest that the senator released to the public. Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination. Over conservation - Taft thought that Roosevelt and his environmental guy Pinchot were doing things illegally so Taft got Ballinger and they disagreed on coal lands in Alaska- Pinchot was fired- This was an attack on a key Roosevelt policy- Taft was betraying Roosevelt

"The Birth of a Nation"

Glamorized movie that portrayed reconstruction in the south as a period when ignorant African Americans terrorized whites and made a travesty of government.

Hepburn Act

Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power to regulate the railroad rates, pass maximum rate laws and review railroad accounts and records, it gets passed but senate puts up a fight (senator Aldrich)

Roosevelt's conservation policy

Roosevelt appoints Gifford Pinchot as the 1st director of the National Forest Service. They protect land for managed development and did not save it for future use. They wanted to protect the landscape but also allow the clear cutting of timber/barge corporations to help develop resource. They also raised awareness of important national issues of management of natural resources. appoints Gifford Pinchot as the first Director of the National Forest Service; they both wanted to protect the land for managed development. Thought we should use our resources now, not for some locked up future use. Trained experts from the federal government should manage the natural resources of the country - true conversationalists disagree. Grand Canyon, game preserves, bird refuges, and national forests are created, also creates the National Monument Act and the Governors Conference on conservation.

The Federal Reserve Act

Makes the Federal Reserve Board whose members are appointed by the president. It operates as a central bank and has the power to determine the amount of money in circulation. It has the power to expand or contract credit and established 21 banks in various locations around the country. To a certain degrees, it responds to changes in the business cycle and can monitor other nationally operating banks.

referendum

the result of an initiative, it was a special vote that was called by the people (first seen in South Dakota)

muckraking

the name given to investigative reporters in the early 1900s. The people were negative journalists who exposed weakness and corruption of American society. Based off of John Bunyan's story of constantly looking down, raking the ___ off the floor and not being able to see heaven above him. The name given by President Roosevelt (who got the word from John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress) to investigative reporters in the early 1900s. It grew out of changing journalism and impulse for reform. Roosevelt supported them as long as they avoided stirring up radical unrest. Saw themselves as scientists objectively reporting the conditions and illness of modern industrial society- Upton Sinclair's Expose of Meat-Packing Industry- "The Jungle." These pieces heightened moral anger among middle class Americans over the corruption of big business. It rallied public support for several federal regulatory measures including the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Hepburn Act of 1906.

Taft's philosophy

He believed that the president should act with the strict letter of the law and the constitutional boundaries of his office. He was bound to disappoint Roosevelt and progressive Republicans. Taft insisted Republicans be loyal to his administration or risk reprisal when they sought the White House approval of appointments or legislation, this increased tension between him and Congress.

Taft difficulties

The republican conservatives expected him to slow the movement toward reform, but progressives wanted the new president to expand Roosevelt's legacy. He lacked Roosevelt's sense of public relations and his troubles with Congress persisted. His fragile friendship with Roosevelt collapsed because he was more vigorous in trust busing than Roosevelt was. It was in his presidency that the Republicans began splitting."

Gifford Pinchot

1st director of the National Forest Service under Roosevelt. He was Roosevelt's principal aid in federal government control of natural resources. He was disliked by Taft and Taft doubted whether the policies Roosevelt pursued were legal.

W. Patrick Hurley

Ordered the Bonus Army to be removed. the Secretary of war. By his orders, police kill two bonus marches then use tear gas and fire to get rid of veterans.

progressive reform

To improve society and create order and stability. Direct primary, initiative, referendum. They tried to make cities more efficient and improve the structure of cities. City commissions and manages reformed. Some cities lowered streetcar fares, worked on plans to keep electric rates low, offered free kindergarten, increased wages for city employees, restricted the capacity of state governments, managed own taxes. Some states created commission groups to specialize in different areas of issue. A mayor was a political model and a manager was a finance model.

Eugene Debs

Red Special campaign in the election of 1912. He ran in every election since 1900 and was increasing in votes each time.

Roosevelt's Labor Policy

"Hepburn Act." TR treats capital and labor as equals - claims he struck a "Square Deal" with coal workers and he was offering the same to all Americans. After the United Mine Workers strike against coal industry in 1902 - compromise was 10% increase in pay. Other Square Deal policies include Elkins Act (outlawed rebates given by Railroads), Department of Commerce (created by TR with the Bureau of Corporations in the middle whose job is to publicize corporation records), and laws strengthening Justice Department so the JD can pursue more anti-trust cases.

Women's Suffrage movement

National American Woman Suffrage Association presented congress with petition asking for vote. Turned down, but inspired further movements. Alice Paul was main figure in radical wing of woman's suffrage. Liquor industry feared women vote because they would support Prohibition. Some thought women voting would lead to purer and more honest politics. Said that women voting would offset the votes of immigrants and racial minorities in large cities

Web-Kenyon Act

Outlawed the shipment of alcohol into dry states.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Insures bank deposits up to $5,000. It provided funds to refinance 1/5 of the nation's home and farm mortgages and ends prohibition, leads to the manufacturing and legalization of beer sales (but still have to have a alcohol content of 3.2%) The 18th amendment was appealed.

Triple Entente

The Allies: Britain, France, Russia. They side with Serbia after the assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand

Harry Hopkins

Head of Civil Works Administration

General Assembly

United States, Britain, France, Japan, and Italy

Great Migration

600,000 African Americans move from the rural South into northern industrial cities to find a better life, but they still encountered discrimination. Immigration from Europe ends because of the war, so there were labor openings in the labor market up north, which gives AAs a chance to work. They worked in the stock yards, coal mines, and steel mills of Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York. A massive movement of blacks leaving the south for cities in the north that began slowly in 1910 and accelerated between 1914 and 1920. During this time, more than 600,000 African Americans left the south. The outbreak of the war played a key role in this process. Immigration from Europe ended, resulting in expanding labor markets for unskilled workers in the North. Those who came to the north found a better life. They secured work in the coal mines of West Virginia, the stockyards of Chicago, and the steel mills of Pittsburgh. Blacks encountered discrimination in housing and public services but they continued to move north in a historic population shift that reshaped the politics and culture of the nation's largest cities

Prohibition

Drys vs. Wets in the fight over manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages

the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

Grew during the woman suffrage movement. They presented congress with a petition of 400,000 signatures asking for a Constitutional amendment allowing women to vote. Congress refused to act, but women suffragists were inspired by the petition.

initiative

the people allowed to petition the states to vote on an issue (first seen in South Dakota)

Wets

anti prohibitionists

women & progressivism

a period in the era when the settlement house movement was still going on. Led to the conversation movement with the garden club and effort to save birds from extinction and get national parks.

Socialist Party

party that appealed to agricultural workers and the poor

Drys

pro prohibitionists

Brain Trust

academic people who wrote Roosevelt's speeches

tour of "Great White Fleet"

Increase the funding of the Navy, Roosevelt sent this ship on a round-the-world tour from 1907 to 1909 when the vessels stops in Japan, the reception was enthusiastic and friendly. A month later the two nations negotiated the Root-Takahira Agreement, which called for the Open Door in China, the independence of that country, and preservation of the status quo in the Pacific.

margin trading

For less well off investors, the purchase of stock on credit and pay only 10-15% of actual value at the time of purchase, then sell it at a higher level and pay back debt to stockbroker and make a profit. The problem is the investor could be asked at any time to pay in full for the whole thing, but people thought that it wouldn't happen so they bought even if they couldn't afford it.

Overproduction in agricultural continues before the Great Depression

beginning of depression hits farmers hardest. The cotton prices dropped and farmers can't pay mortgages and banks fail

Triple Alliance

The central powers: Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire and Italy, they side with Austria-Hungary

Alice Paul

Leader of a radical wing of suffragettes. She tried to get voting rights in London earlier and later marched on Washington.

Bonus Army

The American veterans of WWI wanted their $1000 bonus early. Hoover was concerned about keep the budget balanced and says no. The veterans organize this army and march on Washington. They set up crude camps all over the city, Anacostia river, and some sleep in government buildings. The authorities try their best to give them food and shelter during their stay but Hoover order the Army to clear them out, Roosevelt even offers to pay $100,00 to make veterans leave. Hoover blames incident on Communists and claims there were communists in the camps and that's why he did what he did"

States that allowed women to vote

California, Kansas, Washington, Oregon, and Arizona

Conservation

setting aside land and nature for American use

Scopes Trial

A school teacher taught evolution in one of his classes, teacher found guilty. Signaled the end of fundamentalists, but the political side did not lose momentum.

Obstacles to Women's Suffrage

The liquor industry feared if women could vote, then they would support Prohibition, white southerners feared giving women rights would leader to African American rights

Roosevelt's economic proposal

United States to be a nation of consumers with Model Ts and standardized food products. Advertising agencies shaped the content of product information. Sears, Roebuck & Company was a leader in consumer marketing. he wanted to curb the power of - not destroy - big business, so really a Trust-Regulator not buster. Worried about US Steel but doesn't file suit; Department of Justice files suit on Supreme Court, ruling it violated Sherman Antitrust Act.

The Stock Market before the Crash

From February 1928. Stock value rose and it was the highest ever. It began to slip October 21-23 1929, but there were temporary recoveries.

Roosevelt Corollary

A natural extension of the Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt said that "chronic wrongdoing or impotence" of Latin American nations in paying their debts might lead to the US "to the exercise of an international police power."

Taft's trust busting

He acquired the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company which violated the law

"speak softly and carry a big stick"

The Big Stick Policy of Roosevelt. Because the world was increasingly dangerous, military preparedness was a key goal. The US needed to be kind with the diplomacy of words to civilized nations (like us) and use military strength to express diplomacy through uncivilized nations.

progressive era

During this era alcohol was prohibited, immigrants were restricted, power was shifted away from the poor, the government was responsible for the people, monopolies ended, out emerged the food and drug act and the meat inspection act, power was also taken away from political machines.

Zora Neal Hurston

A playwright during the Harlem Renaissance, she wrote "Color Struck"

how did Taft alienate the progressive republicans in his presidency?

with his philosophy and trust busting. He is much more conservative than TR. Believed the president should act within the strict letter of the law and constitutional boundaries

election of 1916

Democratic Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican Candidate Charles Evans Hughes. The key to Wilson's re-election was foreign policy; it depended on continuing the uneasy neutrality he had maintained with the Germans and the British throughout. The republicans were divided between those who wished to do more for the allies and those who either disliked overseas involvement or wished to help Germany. Democrats approached the election with confidence. Wilson could not ignore powerful peace groups. Had to balance pacifism and preparedness. Wilson himself tended to side with pacifists even though he was taking a more hard line approach with Germans. Wilson endorses a proposal to build up U.S. military because of growing tensions with Germany. Outraged the pacifists. "He kept us out of war" - slogan of the Wilson re-election campaign. Narrowly defeated Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes, who was viewed as being more likely to lead the nation into war.

J.P. Morgan Jr.

Led a banking syndicate when the stock market crashed, he bought stocks to keep people calm.

Countee Cullen

Poet during the Harlem Renaissance, she wrote "Do I Marvel?"

Anti-Saloon League

Concentrated on prohibition on a state by state basis. They wanted to limit the power of the liquor industry to sell its products to the public. It gave voters a "local option" then a "statewide option" to ban the sale of alcohol. It was not entirely effective. Goal was to come up with a constitutional amendment to ban alcohol everywhere in the US. Oklahoma and 14 other states band alcohol by 1914.

League of Nations

Created in the Treaty of Versailles by Wilson. It contains the council of General Assembly to work to preserve each other's independence and help if anyone was attacked. Consisted of a General Assembly of all member nations; a council made up of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the US, with four other countries that the Assembly selected; and an international court of justice. Article X required member nations to preserve each other's independence and take concerted action when any member of the league was attacked. Key issue: Treaty of Versailles in 1919

Man-Elkins Act

broadened the power of the Interstate Commerce Commissions

the international debt structure before the Great Depression

the US refused to forgive or reduce European debts. Young plan. Major problem: raising tariffs on foreign goods so the foreign countries did the same for US good and therefore people bough less.

Social Security Act of 1935

Volunteerism and independent responsibility. Frances Perkins orders FDR to create a national pension fund, unemployment insurance system, public assistance for dependent moms, children, and disabled. Financed by payroll tax, modest benefits for people $20-30 a month, Roosevelt didn't intend for it to become main source of personal retirement, but it had problems: it excluded domestic workers, farmworkers, self employed people. It taxed people at a fixed rate and made people with the lowest incomes pay a lot of their wages into the system.

Stock Market crash

Stocks lost 40% of value, the "most disastrous day in wall street history". It was the first outward sign of crisis, but not the direct cause.

Theodore Roosevelt's Foreign Policy

Roosevelt Corollary, support of Panamanian revolution, tour of "Great White Fleet", "speak softly...", tension between US and WWI involvements, American neutrality during WWI, neutral rights during WWI.

The immediate cause for tension between the US and those involved in WWI

the Serbian nationalist assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) and because of their alliances it soon escalates to involve all major powers of Europe

Young Plan

Says US will lower what Germany owes from WWI and give them more time to pay it off (helps to improve US debt by a little)

Progressives during the 1916 Election

Roos, he declines and the party disappears

Balance Woman Suffrage

Women did not ask for equal political rights, they just wanted to offset the votes of immigrants and minorities.

The Square Deal

Roosevelt's approach to wield presidential power to treat capital and labor on an equal basis

support of Panamanian revolution

The United States acquisitioned the Panama canal zone and joined the revolution between Panama and Columbia when Panama wanted to break off and become its own country. The United Joined on Panama's side so it could build the US canal without Columbian influence. Columbia wasn't cooperative. Roosevelt regarded this as his greatest achievement in his presidency.

no government insurance of bank deposits before the Great Depression

The banks were unstable and when the crash occurred people rushed to "run" the bank and withdraw money. There was no cooperation between different banks during the crisis, larger banks called in loans from smaller banks to save selves. There were no unemployment insurance or old age pensions.

direct primary

Allowed voters to choose candidates for their political party. Lowered taxes, American Medical Association, National Association of Manufactures, National Civil Federation, National Child Labor Committee, National Consumers League.

Anna Howard Shaw

leader of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

Revival of Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s

Partially due to a twisted movie portrayal of Reconstruction by D.W. Griffith in the movie "The Birth of a Nation."

causes of stock market crash

Many risky investments, businesses sold stocks to public to earn money for expansion, stockbrokers used aggressive advertising techniques, government tax policies enabled wealthy to retain money and invest in securities, abuse of margin buying, and a very lax government regulation of issues that didn't require people to reveal true financial status of companies.

Remain neutral

Wilson's stance on getting involved in WWI, although did admire and sympathized with Britain and French.

Theodore Roosevelt

President whose domestic policies and proposals included a legislative program, labor, conservation, and the economy.

Richard Ballinger

new secretary of interior under Taft. He began opening land for development that Pinchot had closed off to settlers and businesses - Pinchot accused him of acting as an agent for a syndicate trying to sell valuable coal lands to Alaska.

Black Thursday

October 24, 1929, the day the stock market crash began. People tried to sell stocks but there were no buyers so the prices collapsed. The total number of shares traded reached 13 million, a record. There was an estimated $9 billion loss and afterwards a banking syndicate led by J.P. Morgan Jr.

Oct 29, 1929

the date of the stock market crashed

Franklin D. Roosevelt's ability to restore confidence

Believes in balanced budgets, gold standard, and capitalism. He reaches people through the radio, Progressive views, 1932 democratic candidate. He tried to attract big city leaders and the solid south. Hires the brain trust, New Deal.

Alain Locke

Poet who wrote the book "The New Negro" that said people should evaluate blacks on their artistic and cultural contributions. It signaled the peak of the Harlem Renaissance.

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

Created jobs and restored self respect by handing out pay envelopes instead of relief checks. Sometimes the workers did worthless tasks called boondoggles (like raking leaves in huge circles or lugging shovels of dirt to far places) Spends most of $1 billion budge on worthwhile projects like building airports, 200000 miles of road, running nursery schools, serve hot school lunches, and remove garbage from streets, it hires 4 million people in only a few months. Ended after a few months by Roosevelt because it was too small and inefficiently administered.

Langston Hughes

Poet during the Harlem Renaissance, he wrote "The Weary Blues"

the election of 1904

Republican Teddy Roosevelt vs Democrat Alton B. Parker vs. Socialist Eugene V. Debs. Roosevelt wins in a landslide with the most electoral college votes in any election up until that time. Roosevelt announces it to be his last term and will honor precedent of not running for a 3rd time. He uses this last term to pursue his own policies of reform and feels that he no longer needs to remain loyal to McKinley's vision of the presidency. He asks congress to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commissions and regulates railroad rates. TR's domestic and foreign policy triumphs made him a unanimous choice for the Republican presidential nomination. Democrats pick Alton B. Parker, a dull conservative NY state judge. TR receive 57% of the vote and 336 electoral votes (more than any president ever up to that time) to Parker's 38%. 400,000 people voted and less would vote in coming years. TR then made a dramatic statement that he had already served his first term and wouldn't run for a third.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Covered 7 states but poorest region (made up of farmer/sharecroppers living in isolated communities without electricity, medical care, schools, and paved roads). It was a massive experience in regional planning. Within a decade completed 16 dams and hydroelectric plants along the Tennessee River. The purpose was to generate and sell electricity to the public at reasonable rates. It also had the effect of providing jobs, controlling flooding, improved water transportation, and brought electricity to thousands who had never had it before. The most celebrated success of the New Deal. Some people didn't like government interfering.

Harlem Renaissance

Black literature, poetry, and art progressed. There was an exploration of black culture as a way to solve contemporary problems. Black intellectual life centered in New York especially Harlem. It was inspired by W.E.B. Dubois's encouragement of black writing in The Crisis (a NAACP journal). It was a vehicle for increasing the self-respect and status of African Americas. Major figures include Alain Locke, Langston Hughes, Contee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, and James Johnson. The movement did not change segregationist laws and customs. Saw exploration of black culture as a way to solve contemporary problems. Vehicle for increasing the self-respect and status of African Americans. Center of literature, poetry, and art. Major figures in the movement:. Alain Locke: an African American poet and an important member. Zora Neale Hurston: an African American novelist who embodied the creative and artistic aspirations. Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen Movement did not change segregationist laws and customs

Declining exports before the Great Depression

the European industry recovered from WWI and didn't need as much from the United States anymore

impact of stock market crash

"investors were wiped out, the confidence in the economy dropped, the truth of the real weakness of economy revealed, the prices in stocks fell, the GNP goes from $88 billion to $76 billion."

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