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What are examples of special senses?

What are the following examples of:

1. smell
2. taste
3. vision
4. hearing
5. balance

What are examples of general senses?

What are the following examples of:

1. somatic senses
2. visceral senses

What are examples of somatic senses?

What are the following examples of:

1. tactile sensations ( touch, pressure, vibration
2. thermal sensations ( warm and cold )
3. pain sensations
4. proprioceptive sensations ( joint and muscle position sense and movements of the limbs and head)

What information do visceral senses provide?

What provides information about conditions within internal organs?

What is Sensation?

What is the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment?

What conditions must be satisfied for a sensation to occur?

What do the following conditions allow to occur:

1. a stimulus, of change in the environment, capable of activating certain sensory neurons (may be in the form of light, heat, pressure, mechanical energy or chemical energy)
2. a sensory receptor, must convert the stimulus to an electrical signal, which ultimately produces one or more nerve impulses
3. the nerve impulses must be conducted along a neural pathway from the sensory receptor to the brain
4. a region of the brain must receive and integrate the nerve impulses into a sensation

What is Perception?

What is the conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations and is primarily a function of the cerebral cortex?

What is Adaptation?

What is a characteristic of most sensory receptors, is a decrease in the strength of a sensation during a prolonged stimulus?

What are the two types of sensory receptors?

\What are the two following receptors described as:

1. structural
2. functional

What is a Structural Receptor?

What type of sensory receptors are free nerve endings, which are bare dendrites that lack structural specializations at their ends?

What are examples of structural receptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. pain
2. temperature
3. tickle
4. itch
5. some touch sensations

What are encapsulated nerve endings?

What have their dendrites enclosed in a connective tissue capsule which are receptors of somatic and visceral sensations?

What are examples of encapsulated nerve endings?

What are the following examples of?

1. touch
2. pressure
3. vibrations

What are separate cells?

What are specialized that synapse with sensory neurons?

Hair cells of the inner ear

What are examples of mechanoreceptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. are sensitive to mechanical stimuli such as deformation, stretching or bending of cells
2. they provide sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception , hearing and equilibrium
3. they also monitor the stretching of blood vessels and internal organs

What are Thermoreceptors?

What detect changes in temperature?

What are Nociceptors?

What responds to painful stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue?

What are Photoreceptors?

What detects light that strikes the retina of the eye?

What are Chemoreceptors?

What detect chemicals in the mouth ( taste ), nose ( smell ) and body fluids?

What are Osmoreceptors?

What detects the osmotic pressure of body fluids?

What are examples of somatic senses?

What are the following examples of?

1. skin
2. mucous membranes
3. muscles
4. tendons
5. joints

(These sensations arise from stimulation of sensory receptors.)

Where are the largest numbers of sensory receptors located?

The largest number of _________ are located in:

1. tip of the tongue
2. lips
3. fingertips

What are examples of tactile sensations?

What are the following examples of?

1. include touch, pressure, vibration, itch and tickle
2. they arise by activation of some of the same type of receptors
3. several types of encapsulated mechanoreceptors detect sensations of touch, pressure and vibration
4. free nerve endings detect other tactile sensations, such as itch, and tickle

What are examples of tactile receptors in the skin or subcutaneous layer?

What are the following examples of?

1. Meissner corpuscles
2. hair root plexuses
3. Merkel discs
4. Ruffini corpuscles
5. pacinian corpuscles
6. free nerve endings

What is Touch?

What is a sensation generally result from stimulation of tactile receptors in the skin or subcutaneous layer?

What are examples of touch receptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. Meissner corpuscle
2. hair root follicles

What are examples of Meissner corpuscle (corpuscles of touch)?

What are the following examples of?

1. are the touch receptors located in the dermal papillae of hairless skin
2. each corpuscle is an egg - shaped mass of dendrites enclosed by a capsule of connective tissue
3. they are abundant in the
a) finger tips
b) hands
c) eyelids
d) tip of the tongue
e) lips
f) nipples
g) sole
h) clitoris
i) tip of the penis

What are examples of hair root follicles?

What are the following examples of?

1. found in hairy skin, consists of free nerve endings wrapped around hair follicles
2. detect movements on the skin surface that disturb hairs

What are examples of slowly adapting touch receptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. Merkel discs
2. Ruffini corpuscles

What are examples of Merkel discs (tactile discs or type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors)?

What are the following examples of?

1. saucer - shaped, flattened free nerve endings that make contact with Merkel cells of stratum basale
2. these touch receptors are plentiful in finger tips, hands, lips and external genitalia

What are examples of Ruffini corpuscles or type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. elongated encapsulated receptors located deep in the dermis, ligaments and tendons
2. present in the hands and abundant on the sole
3. they are most sensitive to stretching that occurs as digits or limbs are moved

What is Pressure?

What is a sustained sensation that is felt over a large area and occurs in deeper tissues?

What are examples of receptors that contribute to sensations of pressure?

What are the following examples of?

1. Meissner corpuscles
2. Merkel discs
3. pacinian corpuscles

What are examples of Pacinian or lamellated corpuscle?

What are the following examples of?

1. large oval structure, composed of multilayered connective tissue capsule that encloses a dendrite
2. they adapt rapidly
3. widely distributed in the body
a) in the dermis and subcutaneous layer
b) in the tissues that underlie mucous and serous membranes
c) around joints, tendons and muscles
d) in the periosteum
e) in the mammary glands
f) external genitalia
g) certain viscera, such as the pancreas and urinary bladder

What is Vibration?

What results from rapidly repetitive sensory signals from tactile receptors?

What are examples of Vibration receptors?

What are the following examples of?

1. Meissner corpuscles (detect lower - frequency vibrations)
2. pacinian corpuscles (detect higher - frequency vibrations)

What is an Itch sensation?

What sensation results from stimulation of free nerve endings, by certain chemicals, such as bradykinin, often because of a local inflammatory response?

What is a Tickle sensation?

What sensation typically arises only when someone else touches you, not when you touch yourself?

What type of endings do Thermoreceptors have?

What have free nerve endings?

What type of sensations do Thermoreceptors have?

What has the following distinct sensations:
1. coldness
2. warmth

What type of sensations do Nociceptors have?

What has the following distinct sensations:
1. the sensory receptors for pain sensations, found in every tissue of the body except the brain
2. they respond to several types of stimuli

What are the events that produce the sensation of pain?

What do the following events produce:
1. excessive stimulation of sensory receptors
2. excessive stretching of a structure
3. prolonged muscular contractions
4. inadequate blood flow to an organ
5. presence of certain chemical substances

What are the two types of pain?

What are the following examples of:

1. fast pain
2. slow pain

What are the characteristics of fast pain?

What are the following characteristic of?

1. occurs very rapidly, usually within 0.1 second after a stimulus is applied
2. this type of pain is also known as acute, sharp or pricking pain
3. not felt in the deeper tissues of the body

What are examples of fast pain?

What are the following examples of?

1. the pain felt from a needle puncture
2. knife cut to the skin

What are the characteristics of slow pain?

What are the following characteristic of?

1. begins a second or more after a stimulus is applied
2. it then gradually increases in intensity over a period of several seconds or minitues
3. it is referred to chronic, burning, aching or throbbing pain
4. occurs both in the skin and its deeper tissues or internal organs

What is an example of slow pain?

What is the following an example of?

The pain associated with a toothache

What are the characteristics of referred pain, a.k.a. visceral pain?

What are the following characteristic of?

1. when the it is felt in
2. just deep to the skin that overlies the stimulated organ
3. in a surface area far from the stimulated organ

Additional characteristics of referred pain:

The area of the referred pain is served by the same segment of the spinal cord
1. sensory neurons from the heart
2. the skin over the heart
3. the skin along the medial aspect of the left arm enter the spinal cord segments T1 to T5

What is an example of slow pain?

What is the following an example of?

Examples:
The pain of a heart attack typically is felt in the skin over the heart and along the left arm

What are the characteristics of proprioceptive sensations?

What are the following characteristic of?

1. where our head and limbs are located
2. how they are moving even if we are looking at them
3. so that we can walk, type or dress without using our eyes
4. allow us to estimate the weight of objects and determine the muscular effort necessary to perform a task

What is Kinesthesia?

What is the perception of body movements?

What are Proprioceptors?

What are the receptors for proprioceptive sensations?

Where are Proprioceptors located?

What is located in the following:

1. skeletal muscles ( muscle spindles )
2. in tendons ( tendon organs )
3. in and around synovial joints ( joint kinetic receptors )
in the inner ear ( hair cells )

Where do nerve impulses for conscious proprioception pass?

What passes along sensory tracts in the spinal cord and brain stem?

(Proprioceptive impulses also pass to the cerebellum, where they contribute to the cerebellum's role in coordinating skilled movements)

Where are nerve impulses for conscious proprioception relayed?

What is relayed to the primary somatosensory area (postcentral gyrus) in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex?

Olfaction - Sense of smell

The nose contains 10 - 100 million receptors used for _________________.

What area does the structure of the olfactory epithelium occupy?

What occupies the upper portion of the nasal cavity?

What does the structure of the olfactory epithelium consists of?

What consists of the three types of cells:

1. olfactory receptors
2. supporting cells
3. basal stem cells

What are olfactory receptors?

What are the first - order neurons of the olfactory pathway?

What are olfactory hairs?

What have several cilia projecting from a knob-shaped tip on each olfactory receptor, which respond to inhaled chemicals?

What are Odorants?

What are the chemicals that have an odor and can therefore stimulate the olfactory hairs?

Where do the axons of olfactory receptors extend from?

What extends from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb?

What are supporting cells?

What are columnar epithelial cells of the mucous membrane lining the nose?

What are the functions of the supporting cells?

What is the following an example of?

1. provide physical support
2. nourishment
3. electrical insulation for the olfactory receptors
4. help detoxify chemicals that come in contact with the olfactory epithelium

What are examples of Basal cells?

What is the following an example of?

1. stem cells located between the bases of the supporting cells
2. they continually undergo cell division to produce new olfactory receptors

What do olfactory glands produce?

What produce mucous that moistens the surface of the olfactory epithelium?

What are the functions of the olfactory glands?

What is the following an example of?

Serves as a solvent for inhaled odorants

How does stimulation of olfactory receptors occur?

What are the following characteristic steps of?

1. olfactory receptors react to odorant molecules by producing an electrical signal that triggers one or more nerve impulses
2. adaptation ( decreasing sensitivity ) to odors occurs rapidly
3. olfactory receptors adapt to about 50 % in the first second or so after stimulation and very slowly thereafter

What is the olfactory pathway?

What is on each side of the nose, about 40 bundles of slender, unmyelinated axons of olfactory receptors extend through about 20 holes in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?

What are olfactory nerves?

What are the collection of the bundles of axons?

What are examples of olfactory bulbs?

What are the following examples of?

Examples:
1. paired masses of gray matter located below the frontal lobes of the cerebrum
2. the olfactory nerves terminate in the olfactory bulbs in the brain
3. it has the axon terminals of olfactory receptors, the first - order neurons form synapses with the dendrites and cell bodies of second - order neurons in the olfactory pathway

What is an olfactory tract?

What are the extending neurons from the olfactory bulb?

Where are the primary olfactory areas located?

What are the following locations for?

1. in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex
2. some of the axons of the olfactory tract project to this area
3. conscious awareness of smell begins here

Where can other axons of the olfactory tract project to?

What are the following locations for?

1. limbic system
2. hypothalamus

Where are examples of primary olfactory area responses?

What are the following examples of?

1. sexual excitement upon smelling a certain perfume
2. nausea upon smelling a food that once made you violently ill

(These connections account for emotional and memory-evoked responses to odors)

What is Gustation also described as?

What is also known as your Sense of Taste?

Taste or gestation is much simpler than olfaction because only five primary tastes can be distinguished. What are these tastes?

What are the following examples of?

1. sour
2. sweet
3. bitter
4. salty
5. umami ( meaty or savory )

All other flavors are combinations of the five primary tastes, plus the accompanying olfactory and tactile ( touch ) sensations: What are examples?

What are the following examples of?

Examples:
1. chocolate
2. pepper
3. coffee

What are taste buds?

What have the receptors for taste sensation, located on the tongue?

10000

The young adult has nearly _______ taste buds.

What are some locations of taste buds?

Some ______ are also found:
1. on the roof of the mouth
2. pharynx ( throat )
3. epiglottis ( cartilage lid over the voice box )

What are examples of Papillae?

What are the following examples of?

1. are elevations of the tongue where taste buds are found
2. they provide a rough texture to the upper surface of the tongue

What do Vallate papillae form?

What form an inverted V shaped row at the back of the tongue?

What do Fungiform papillae form?

What are mushroom - shaped elevations scattered over the entire surface of the tongue?

Where are Filiform papillae located?

What also on the entire surface of the tongue, which contain touch receptors but no taste buds?

What do taste buds consist of?

What is an oval body consisting of three types of epithelial cells
1. supporting cells
2. gustatory receptor cells
3. basal cells

What are supporting cells?

What surround about 50 gustatory receptor cells?

What is a Gustatory hair?

What is single and long projects from each gustatory receptor cell?

What is a taste pore?

What is an opening in the taste bud where the gustatory hair project to the external surface?

What are examples of Basal cells?

What are the following examples of?

Examples:
1. are stem cells that produce supporting cells
2. which then develop into gustatory receptor cells
3. they have a life span of 10 days

What are gustatory receptor cells?

What are separate receptor cells?

They do not have an axon ( like olfactory receptors ) but rather synapse with the dendrites of the first - order sensory neurons of the gustatory pathway.

What are examples of Tastants?

What are the following examples of?

1. are the chemicals that stimulate gustatory receptor cells
2. once a tastant is dissolved in saliva, it can enter taste pores and make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs
3. the result is an electrical signal that stimulates release of neurotransmitter molecules from the gustatory receptor cell
4. nerve impulses are triggered when these neurotransmitter molecules bind to their receptors on the dendrites of the first - order sensory neuron
5. the dendrites branch profusely and contact many gustatory receptors in several taste buds
6. individual gustatory receptor cells may respond to more than one of the primary tastes
7. complete adaptation ( loss of sensitivity ) to a specific taste can occur in 1 to 5 minutes of continuous stimulation

What are examples of a Gustatory pathway?

What are the following examples of?

1. three cranial nerves contain axons of first - order gustatory neurons that innervate the taste buds
2. the facial ( VII) nerve and glossopharyngeal ( IX ) nerve serve the tongue
3. the vagus ( X ) nerve serves the throat and epiglottis
4. from the taste buds, impulses propagate along these cranial nerves to the medulla oblongata
5. from the medulla, some axons carrying taste signals project to the limbic system and the hypothalamus and others project to the thalamus
6. taste signals from the thalamus project to the primary gustatory area

What is a Primary gustatory area?

What is located in the parietal lobe of cerebral cortex give rise to the conscious perception of taste?

TRUE

TRUE OR FALSE:

More than half of the sensory receptors in the human body are located in the eyes

A large part of the cerebral cortex is devoted processing visual information

What are examples of accessory structures of the eye?

What are the following examples of?

1. eyebrows
2. eyelashes
3. eyelids
4. extrinsic muscles that move the eyeballs
5. lacrimal ( tear - producing ) apparatus

What do eyebrows and eyelashes help protect the eyeballs from?

What help to protect the eyeballs from;

1. foreign objects
2. perspiration
3. direct rays of the sun

What are functions of the upper and lower eyelids?

What are the following examples of?

1. shade the eyes during sleep
2. protect the eyes from excessive light and foreign objects
3. spread lubricating secretions over the eyeballs ( by blinking )

What are the six extrinsic eye muscles cooperate to move each eyeball right, left, up, down and diagonally?

What are the following examples of?

1. superior rectus
2. inferior rectus
3. lateral rectus
4. medial rectus
5. superior oblique
6. inferior oblique

What do the neurons in the brain stem and cerebellum coordinate?

What coordinate and synchronize the movements of the eyes?

A lacrimal apparatus is a group of what?

Give examples

What are the following examples of?

1. glands
2. ducts
3. canals
4. sac

What are lacrimal glands?

What are right and left, about the size and shape of an almond, secrete lacrimal fluid or tear?

What are lacrimal ducts?

What convey the lacrimal fluid onto the surface of the upper eyelid?

What are lacrimal canals?

What carry the fluid over the surface of the eyeball toward the nose?

What is the nasolacrimal duct?

What allows the tears to drain into the nasal cavity?

A tear is a watery solution containing what?

Give examples

What are the following examples of?

1. salts
2. some mucous
3. bacteria - killing enzyme called lysozyme

What is the function of tear?

_________ is designed to clean, lubricate and moisten the portion of the eyeball exposed to the air to prevent it from drying?

How are tears cleared away?

Normally tears are cleared away by evaporation or by passing into the nasal cavity as fast as they are produced.

What is Crying?

What is the only human expression for emotions, both happiness and sadness?

2.5 cm ( 1 inch )

The adult eyeball measures about _________ in diameter?

What three layers is the eyeball divided into?

What are the following examples of?

1. fibrous tunic
2. vascular tunic
3. retina

What is fibrous tunic?

What is the outer coat of the eyeball, consists of an anterior cornea and a posterior sclera?

What are features of the cornea?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a transparent fibrous coat that covers the colored iris
2. it is curved to help focus light rays onto the retina

What are features of the sclera?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. the ' white ' of the eye
2. a coat of dense connective tissue that covers all of entire eyeball except the cornea
3. it gives shape to the eyeball, makes it more rigid and protects its inner parts

What are features of conjunctiva?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. an epithelial layer covers the sclera but not the cornea
2. lines the inner surface of the eyelids

What are features of Vascular tunic?

(The middle layer of the eyeball)

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. choroid
2. ciliary body
3. iris

What are features of the choroid?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a thin membrane that lines most of the internal surface of the sclera
2. it contains many blood vessels that help nourish the retina
3. it also contains melanocytes that produce the pigment melanin, which causes this layer to appear dark brown in color

What are features of melanin in the choroid?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. absorbs stray light rays, which prevents reflection and scattering of light within the eyeball
2. as a result, the image cast on the retina by the cornea and lens remains sharp and clear

What does the ciliary body, at the front of the eye, consist of?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. ciliary processes ( folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body )
2. ciliary muscle ( a smooth muscle that alters the shape of the lens for viewing objects up close or at a distance )

What is aqueous humor?

What is a fluid secreted by the capillaries in the ciliary processes?

What are features of the Lens?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a transparent structure that focuses light rays onto the retina
2. it is constructed of many layers of elastic protein fibers

What are the zonular fibers?

What attach the lens to the ciliary muscle and hold the lens in position?

What are features of the Iris?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. the colored part of the eyeball
2. it includes both circular and radial smooth muscle fibers
3. the smooth muscle of the iris regulates the amount of light passing through the lens

What is the Pupil?

What is the hole in the center of the iris, through which light enters the eyeball?

Parasympathetic division

When the eye is stimulated by bright light, the ______________ of the autonomic nervous system ( ANS ) causes contraction of the circular muscle of the iris, which decreases the size of the pupil ( constriction )

Sympathetic division

When the eye must adjust to dim light, the _____________ of the ANS causes the radial muscles to contract, which increases the size of the pupil ( dilation )

What are features of the Retina?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. the third and inner coat of the eyeball
2. lines the posterior three - quarters of the eyeball
3. it is the beginning of the visual pathway
4. it has two layers, the neural layer and the pigmented layer

What is the neural layer?

What is a multilayered outgrowth of the brain?

What are the three distinct layers of retinal neurons?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. photoreceptor layer
2. bipolar cell layer
3. ganglion cell layer

Distinct layers of retinal neurons

These are separated by two zones, outer and inner synaptic layers, where synaptic contacts are made

(Light passes through the ganglion and bipolar cell layers and both synaptic layers before it reaches the photoreceptor layer.)

What are features of the pigmented layer of the retina?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a sheet of melanin containing epithelial cells located between the choroid and the neural part of the brain
2. the melanin helps to absorb stray light rays

What are Photoreceptors?

What are specialized cells that begin the process by which light rays are ultimately converted to nerve impulses.

What are the two types of photoreceptors?

What are the following types of:

1. rods
2. cones

What are Rods?

What allow us to see shades of gray in dim light, such as moonlight?

What are Cones?

What are stimulated by brighter light. Giving rise to high acute, color vision?

What are the three types of cones are present in the retina?

What are the following:

1. blue cones, which are sensitive to blue light
2. green cones which are sensitive to green light
3. red cones which are sensitive to red light

What is color vision?

What results from the stimulation of various combinations of these three types of cones?

What is macula lutea?

What is the yellow spot in the exact center of the retina?

What are features of the fovea centralis?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a small depression in the center of the macula lutea
2. it is the highest area of visual acuity

What is visual acuity or resolution?

What is the sharpness of vision, because of its high concentration of cones?

Where are rods absent from?

What are absent from the fovea centralis and macula lutea?

Where are rods present in a higher number?

What increase in numbers toward the periphery of the retina?

What are features of visual acuity or resolution?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. from photoreceptors, information flows through the outer synaptic layer to the bipolar cells of the bipolar cell layer
2. from bipolar cells through the inner synaptic layer to the ganglion cells of the ganglion cell layer
3. between 6 and 600 rods synapse with a single bipolar cell in the outer synaptic layer
4. a cone usually synapses with just one bipolar cell

What are features of the optic disc ( blind spot )?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a small area of the retina posteriorly where the axons of the ganglion cells extend
2. because the optic disc contains no rods or cones, we cannot see an image that strikes the blind spot

What is the optic nerve?

What is the extension of the axons of the ganglion cells?

What are the features of the interior of the eyeball?

What are the following features characteristic of?

The lens divides the __________ into two cavities
1. anterior cavity
2. vitreous chamber

What does the anterior cavity lie?

What lies anterior to the lens?

What are features of the aqueous humor?

What are the following features characteristic of?

1. a watery fluid, similar to cerebrospinal fluid, fills the anterior cavity
2. secreted into the anterior cavity by the blood capillaries of the ciliary processes of the ciliary body
3. normally it is completely replaced about every 90 minutes

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