Pathophysiology - Chapter 3: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

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Abrasion (76)

A scrape that results from removal of the superficial layers of the skin that was caused by friction between the skin and the injuring object.

Algor Mortis (94)

Postmortem reduction of body temperature.

Anoxia (66)

A lack of oxygen caused by vascular obstruction.

Apoptosis (89)

An active process in which cells self-destruct in normal and pathologic tissues

Asphyxial Injury (80)

A suffocation, strangulation, or chemical or drowning injury that results from oxygen deprivation in cells.

Atrophy (63)

A decrease or shrinkage in cellular size. If atrophy occurs in a sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks or becomes atrophic.

Atypical Hyperplasia (64)

Related to hyperplasia [insert definition here]

Autolysis (87)

Autodigestion.

Autophagic Vacuole (63)

Membrane-bound vesicles within the cell that contain cellular debris and hydrolytic enzymes. The level of hydrolytic enzymes rise rapidly in atrophy.

Avulsion (77)

A wide area of tissue may be pulled away creating a large flap. Usually, the shallower the angle of incidence of the blow, the more extensive the undermining. This is an example of a laceration.

Bilirubin (85)

A normal, yellow-to-green pigment of bile derived from the porphyrin structure of hemoglobin. Excess bilirubin within cells and tissues cause jaundice, or yellowing of the skin.

Blow back (79)

A phenomenon where there is a would with a large, gaping, and jagged appearance due to the explosive energy from a large amount of gas sent into the wound and causing severe tearing. This is usually from hard contact wounds of the head, where is a only a thin layer of skin and muscle overlying bone.

Blunt Force (76)

Tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues caused by blows, impacts, or a combination of both.

Carbon Monoxide (CO) (72)

An odorless, colorless, and undetectable gas unless it is mixed witha visible or ordorless pollutant. It is produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels such as gasoline. Although it's a chemical agent, the ultimate injury it produces is a hypoxic injury - namely, oxygen deprivation.

Carboxyhemoglobin (72)

Carbon monoxide bound with hemoglobin. Minute amounts of CO2 can produce significant amounts of this.

Caseous Necrosis (88)

A combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis in which dead cells disintegrate but are not completely digested, resulting in soft granular clumped cellular debris.

Catastrophic (Error-Prone) Theory (92)

States that the presence of errors in those enzymes involved in transcription and translation, and thus their own synthesis, leads to an increase in errors and eventually to the death of the cell.

Cellular Accumulation (Infiltration) (82)

Accumulation of normal cellular substances in the cytoplasm or nucleus as a result of cellular injury or inefficient cell function.

Cellular Swelling (83)

The most common degenerative change is caused by the shift of extracellular water into the cells.

Chemical Asphyxiant (81)

Chemical or gas that prevents the delivery of oxygen to tissues or blocks its use.

Choking Asphyxiation (80)

Injury resulting from failure of cells to receive oxygen because of obstruction of internal airways.

Chopping Wound (78)

Injuries with a combination of sharp- and blunt-force characteristics. In addition to cutting, associated crushing of the wound edges and underlying tissues is usually present.

Coagulative Necrosis (87)

Changes in albumin caused by protein denaturation, primarily in kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands that have experienced hypoxia.

Compensatory Hyperplasia (64)

An increased reate of cell division that compensates for absent or dysfunctional cells of the same tissue.

Contact Range Entrance Wound (78)

Occur when the gun is held so the muzzle rests on or presses into the skin surface, causing a distinctive type of wound. In addition to the hole made by the bullet, there is searing of the edges of the wound from the flame, hot gases exiting the barrel, and soot or smoke deposited on the edges of an in the depths of the wound.

Contusion (76)

A bruise produced by bleeding into the skin or underlying tissues from an insult that did not break the skin but did rupture blood vessels.

Cyanide (81)

Acts as an asphyxiant by combining with the ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase , thereby blocking the intracellular utilization of oxygen. A victim of cyanide poisoning will have the same cherry-red appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication victim because cyanide blocks the utilization of circulating oxyhemoglobin.

Cytochrome (85)

A type of hemoprotein which are oxidative enzymes.

Disuse Atrophy (63)

Individuals immobilized in bed for a prolonged time exhibit a type of skeletal muscle atrophy.

Drowning (81)

Breathing in fluid that causes airway obstruction, thereby decreasing oxygen delivery to tissues.

Dry-Lung Drowning (81)

15% of drownings little or no water enters the lungs because of vagal nerve-mediated laryngospasms.

Dysplasia (Atypical Hyperplasia) (64)

Abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cells.

Dystrophic Calcification (86)

Occurs in dying and dead tissues, chronic tuberculosis of the lungs and lymph nodes, advanced atherosclerosis (narrowing as a result of plaque accumulation), and heart valve injury.

Entrance Wound (78)

All entrance wound appearances are affected by the range of fire.

Epidural Hematoma (76)

A collection of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the dura caused by torn arteries secondary to skull fracture.

Ethanol (72)

Alcohol. Liver and nutritional disorders are the most serious consequences of alcohol abuse.

Exit Wound (79)

Unlike entrance wounds, exit wounds have the same general appearance no matter what the range of fire. Their shape can vary from round to slitlike to completely irregular.

Fat Necrosis (89)

A lipase-induced cellular dissolution of triglycerides in breast, pancreas, and other abdominal structures.

Fat-Free Mass (93)

[insert definition here]

Fatty Change (83)

Intracellular lipid accumulation. Most common site of this is liver cells.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (73)

A result of deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. It can include growth retardation, facial anomalies, cognitive impairment, and ocular malformations. The specific mechanisms of injury are unknown.

Frailty (93)

Physiologic and immune changes that waste the body during aging and leave the affected person susceptible to falls, functional decline, disease, and death.

Free Radical (68)

Highly reactive and destructive particle with an unpaired electron and is produced from an atom or molecule.

Gangrenous Necrosis (89)

Tissue death typically found in the lower leg as a result of severe hypoxic injury secondary to arteriosclerosis or blockage of major arteries.

Gas Gangrene (89)

The formation of gas bubbles and subsequent destruction of connective tissue and cell membranes resulting from the hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacterium of the Clostridium species.

Gender Gap (91)

The gender gap between male and female life expectancy was 5.2 years, down from 5.4 years in 2002.

Hanging Strangulation (80)

A noose is placed around the neck, and the weight of the body is used to cause constriction of the noose and compression of the neck. The body does not need to be completely suspended to produce severe injury or death.

Hematoma (76)

A collection of blood in soft tissue or an enclosed space

Hemoprotein (85)

Endogenous pigments such as hemoglobin and cytochromes that accumulate in cells because of excessive iron storage.

Hemosiderin (85)

A yellow-brown pigment derived from hemoglobin. With pathologic states, excesses of iron cause hemosiderin to accumulate within cells, often in areas of bruising and hemorrhage and in the lungs and spleen after congestion caused by heart failure.

Hemosiderosis (85)

A condition in which excess iron is stored as hemosiderin in the cells of many organs and tissues. This condition is common in individuals who have received repeated blood transfusions or prolonged parenteral administration of iron.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) (64)

An important mediator in vitro of liver regeneration.

Hormonal Hyperplasia (64)

Occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs, such as the uterus and breast. If pregnancy occurs, hormonal hyperplasia, as well as hypertrophy, enables the uterus to enlarge.

Hydrogen Sulfide (81)

(Sewer Gas). It is a chemical asphyxiant in which victims of hydrogen cyanide poisoning may have brown-tinged blood in addition to the nonspecific signs of asphyxiation.

Hyperplasia (64)

An increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division. Hyperplasia, as a response to injury, occurs when the injury has been severe and prolonged enough to have caused cell death.

Hypertrophy (63)

An increase in the size of cells and consequently in the size of the affected organ.

Hypoxia (66)

Lack of sufficient oxygen. It is the single most common cause of cellular injury. It can result from a decreased amount of oxygen int he air, loss of hemoglobin or hemoglobin function, decreased production of red blood cells, diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and poisoning of the oxidative enzymes (cytochromes) within the cells.

Incised Wound (77)

A cut that is longer than it is dep. The wound may be straight or jagged, depending on the object used and how the injury occurred, with sharp, distinct edges without abrasion.

Indeterminate Range Entrance Wound (79)

Occurs when the flame, soot, or gunpowder does not reach the skin surface and the only thing striking the body is the bullet. The term interdeterminate is used rather than distant because it does not imply that one can actually determine the range of fire from the appearance of the wound.

Intermediate (Distance) Range Entrance Wound (79)

They are surrounded by gunpowder tattooing or stippling.

Irreversible Injury (65)

Results in death of injured cells.

Ischemia (66)

Insufficient blood flow to tissues that may result in hypoxia and subsequent cell injury or death

Karyolysis (87)

Nuclear dissolution and lysis of chromatin from the action of hydrolytic enzymes.

Karyorrhexis (87)

Fragmentation of the nucleus into smaller particles or "nuclear dust"

Laceration (77)

A tear or rip resulting when the tensile strength of the skin or tissue is exceeded. Unlike an incision, where the tissue is cleanly divided by a sharp edge, a laceration is much more jagged and irregular, and the edges are abraded.

Lead (72)

A heavy metal that persists in the environment. Lead toxicity is still a primary hazard for children.

Life Expectancy (91)

The range of years representing the average length of life for humans

Ligature Strangulation (80)

The mark on the neck is horizontal without the inverted V pattern seen in hanging. Internal injuries of the neck are rare.

Lipid Peroxidation (68)

The destruction of polyunsaturated lipids (the same process by which fats become rancid) leading to membrane damage and increased permeability. This effect is caused by free radicals.

Lipid-Acceptor Protein (Apoprotein) (70)

[insert definition here]

Lipofuscin (63)

A yellow-brown pigment produced by the breakdown of damaged blood cells in heart and smooth muscles

Liquefactive Necrosis (88)

Liquefaction of neurons and glial cells in the brain as a result of ischemic injury or bacterial infection

Livor Mortis (94)

A purple discoloration. It is caused by gravity causing blood to settle in the most dependent, or lowest, tissues.

Manual Strangulation (81)

Caused either by assailant or by the victim clawing at his or her own neck in an attempt to remove the assailant's hands. Internal damage can ve quite severe, with bruising of deep structures and even fractures of the hyoid bone and tracheal and cricoid cartilages. Petechiae are common.

Maximal Life Span (91)

A range of years representing the average age of death for humans

Melanin (84)

A brown-black pigment synthesized by melanocytes in skin that accumulates in the skin and retina.

Metaplasia (65)

The reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated cell type. It is thought to develop from a reprogramming of stem cells that exist on most epithelia or of undifferentiated (embryonic) mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue.

Metastatic Calcification (86)

Consists of mineral deposits that occur in undamaged normal tissues as the result of hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood).

Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) (68)

[insert definition here]

Muzzle Imprint (79)

A patterned abrasion that mirrors the features of the weapon.

Necrosis (87)

Cellular dissolution. It is the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion known as autodigestion, or autolysis. The structural signs that indicate irreversible injury and progression to necrosis are dense clumping and progressive disruption of genetic material and disruption of the plasma and organelle membranes.

Neuroendocrine Theory (92)

Theory of aging purports that a genetic program for aging is encoded int he brain and is controlled and relayed to peripheral tissues through hormonal and neutral agents. Possible mechanisms include (1) increased hormonal degradation, (2) decreased rate of hormonal synthesis and secretion; and (3) decreased target-organ sensitivity related to the number of cellular receptors for hormonal ligands, ligand-receptor binding, or ligand internalization.

Oncosis (Vacuolar Degeneration) (83)

Formation of a tumor or tumors or the degeneration of cells because of injury-induced inflammation.

Oxidative Stress (68)

A tissue injury induced by free radicals that are produced during metabolic reactions and with exposure to some environmental agents.

Pathologic Apoptosis (89)

The result of intracellular events or adverse exogenous stimuli.

Pathologic Atrophy (63)

Occurs as a result of decreases in workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous stimulation.

Pathologic Hyperplasia (64)

The abnormal proliferation of normal cells, usually in response to excessive hormonal stimulation or growth factors on target cells.

Peroxynitrite (92)

An oxidant and nitrating agent produced by the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide that damages DNA, proteins, and other cellular structures.

Physiologic Apoptosis (94)

[insert definition here]

Postmortem Change (93)

diffuse physiologic changes that occur within minutes after death.

Proteosomes (63)

A large protein catabolic complex in the cytoplasm. It is a component of protein catabolism.

Psammoma Body (86)

Calcium salt layers present in calcified tissues.

Puncture Wound (78)

Result of instruments or objects with sharp points but without sharp edges.

Pyknosis (87)

In some cells, the nucleus shrinks, and becomes a small, dense mass of genetic material.

Reperfusion Injury (67)

Tissue injury resulting from the restoration of oxygen after an interval of hypoxia or anoxia.

Reversible Injury (65)

Injured cells that are able to recover.

Rigor Mortis (94)

Muscle stiffening.

Sarcopenia (93)

A condition in which the number of acini per terminal duct is more than twice the number of normal terminal ducts; associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent breast carcinoma.

Shored Exit Wound (80)

A phenomenon where the bullet pushes the skin against the supporting surface, causing rubbing and scraping around the exit defect as it comes out.

Somatic Death (93)

The death of the entire person.

Somatic Mutation Hypothesis (92)

Proposes that aging is the result of DNA damage, inefficiency of repair, and loss of integrity of DNA synthesis. Most experimental evidence thus far does not suport the hypothesis that aging is the result of somatic mutation.

Stab Wound (77)

A penetrating sharp-force injury that is deeper than it is long.

Stippling (79)

Results when fragments of powder strike with enough force to abrade the skin but not actually penetrate the surface.

Strangulation (80)

Cerebral hypoxia or anoxia caused by compression and closure of the blood vessels and air passages by applying external pressure on the neck.

Subdural Hematoma (76)

A collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura mater and the surface of the brain, resulting in the shearing of small veins that bridge the subdural space. Subdural hematoma can result from blows, falls, or sudden acceleration/deceleration of the head, as occurs in shaken baby syndrome.

Suffocation (80)

Oxygen failing to reach the blood. It can result from a lack of oxygen in the environment (entrapment in an enclosed space or filling of the environment with a suffocating gas) or blockage of the external airways.

Tattooing (79)

Results from fragments of burning or unburned pieces of gunpowder exiting the barrel and striking the skin surface with enough force to be driven into the epidermis or superficial dermis.

Ubiquitin-Proteosome Pathway (63)

Where proteins are degraded first to ubiquitin (another small protein) and then degraded in the cytoplasm. Protein ubiquitination, as well as proteolysis, play a central role in controlling protein turn-over.

Urate (86)

Uric acid. It is the major end product of purine catabolism int he absence of urate oxidase.

Vacuolation (67)

Formation of vacuoles. It occurs within the cytoplasm and swelling of lysosomes and marked mitochondrial swelling result from damage to the outer membrane.

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