# FLVS Physical Science Module 1

## 47 terms · Study flashcards for honors Physical Science Module 1 FLVS

### Speed

Distance/Time
Scalar (only has magnitude, direction doesn't matter)

### Velocity

Speed and Direction so it is a vector. If either the speed or the direction changes, the velocity changes.

### Motion

Change in position relative to a fixed point or frame of reference.

### Frame of Reference

Place or object that is assumed to be fixed.

### Acceleration

Change in velocity/time. Expressed as distance/ unit time squared.

### Force

push or pull on an object

### Balanced Force

Net Force is zero. No change in motion occurs.

### Unbalanced Force

Results in a net force other than zero. Results in change of motion.

### Newton's First Law

An object in motion will continue in motion at same speed and direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force/ an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalance force.

Law of Inertia

### Newton's Second Law Formula

FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION

### Law stating that the greater the mass, the greater amount of force needed to accelerate the object.

Newton's Second Law

### Newton's Third Law

For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction.

### Formula for Momentum

p = mv (momentum = mass x velocity); it is a vector quantity.
Expressed in kilograms-meters/second

### Law of Conservation of Momentum

For objects within a system, momentum remains constant. Sum of initial momentum equals sum of final momentum.

### Momentum

The greater the mass of an object and the faster it is moving, the harder it is to slow it down.

### Angular Momentum

It is easier to slow down a spinning object if you are further from the center of the spinning object (axis of rotation); Formula is (mass) times (velocity) times (radius). Angular momentum is also conserved.

### Holds protons and subatomic particles together in nucleus.

Strong nuclear force

### Short range and strongest of the four forces.

Strong nuclear force

Gravity.

### The two fundamental forces with an infinite range.

Gravity & electromagnetic forces

### Second weakest force;short range;responsible for radioactivity and particle decay (beta decay)

Weak nuclear force

### Only fundamental force that only attract but not repels.

Gravitational force.

### Force involved with like charges repelling and unlike charges attracting. Second strongest fundamental force after strong nuclear force.

Electromagnetic force.

### Mechanical Energy

Energy an object possesses due to movement. Thus it is KINETIC ENERGY.

### Gravitational Energy

POTENTIAL energy an object has because of its position due to gravitational force acting on an object

### Chemical Energy

POTENTIAL energy stored in bonds of molecules and compounds.

### Elastic Energy

POTENTIAL energy stored or released from elastic materials. Results from being stretched or compressed.

### Electrical Energy

Energy produced from an electric charge that flows through a conductor

### Nuclear Energy

Energy produced from the core or nucleus of an atom

Electromagnetic energy that travels in waves. It is KINETIC -- (light,microwaves,x-rays,etc)

### Thermal Energy

Internal KINETIC energy in a substance caused by vibration of atoms and molecules. HEAT!

### Isolated System

Neither matter nor energy can leave the system. Example: the entire universe.

### Closed System

Matter does not leave the system but energy can leave the system. The earth is generally a closed system (except for the occasional meteor etc.)

### Open System

Both energy and matter can leave the system.

### Power

Rate at which work is done

### Formula for Power

Power = Work /Time

Watts

1 Joule/second

### Formula for Work

Force x Distance = Work

Joules

Newton

### 3 Components of Work

Force, Movement, Cause.
Direction of the force and the movement are the same.

### Negative Work

Force applied in opposite direction of movement to slow or stop the object.

### How is Power related to Velocity

Power = Force x Velocity

Stored energy

Energy in motion