Scalar (only has magnitude, direction doesn't matter)
Speed and Direction so it is a vector. If either the speed or the direction changes, the velocity changes.
Change in position relative to a fixed point or frame of reference.
Frame of Reference
Place or object that is assumed to be fixed.
Change in velocity/time. Expressed as distance/ unit time squared.
push or pull on an object
Net Force is zero. No change in motion occurs.
Results in a net force other than zero. Results in change of motion.
Newton's First Law
An object in motion will continue in motion at same speed and direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force/ an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalance force.
Another name for Newton's First Law
Law of Inertia
Newton's Second Law Formula
FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION
Law stating that the greater the mass, the greater amount of force needed to accelerate the object.
Newton's Second Law
Newton's Third Law
For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Formula for Momentum
p = mv (momentum = mass x velocity); it is a vector quantity.
Expressed in kilograms-meters/second
Law of Conservation of Momentum
For objects within a system, momentum remains constant. Sum of initial momentum equals sum of final momentum.
The greater the mass of an object and the faster it is moving, the harder it is to slow it down.
It is easier to slow down a spinning object if you are further from the center of the spinning object (axis of rotation); Formula is (mass) times (velocity) times (radius). Angular momentum is also conserved.
Holds protons and subatomic particles together in nucleus.
Strong nuclear force
Short range and strongest of the four forces.
Strong nuclear force
Weakest of the four fundamental forces.
The two fundamental forces with an infinite range.
Gravity & electromagnetic forces
Second weakest force;short range;responsible for radioactivity and particle decay (beta decay)
Weak nuclear force
Only fundamental force that only attract but not repels.
Force involved with like charges repelling and unlike charges attracting. Second strongest fundamental force after strong nuclear force.
Energy an object possesses due to movement. Thus it is KINETIC ENERGY.
POTENTIAL energy an object has because of its position due to gravitational force acting on an object
POTENTIAL energy stored in bonds of molecules and compounds.
POTENTIAL energy stored or released from elastic materials. Results from being stretched or compressed.
Energy produced from an electric charge that flows through a conductor
Energy produced from the core or nucleus of an atom
Electromagnetic energy that travels in waves. It is KINETIC -- (light,microwaves,x-rays,etc)
Internal KINETIC energy in a substance caused by vibration of atoms and molecules. HEAT!
Neither matter nor energy can leave the system. Example: the entire universe.
Matter does not leave the system but energy can leave the system. The earth is generally a closed system (except for the occasional meteor etc.)
Both energy and matter can leave the system.
Rate at which work is done
Formula for Power
Power = Work /Time
What unit is used for Power
What is a watt equal to?
Formula for Work
Force x Distance = Work
Unit of Work
Unit of Force
3 Components of Work
Force, Movement, Cause.
Direction of the force and the movement are the same.
Force applied in opposite direction of movement to slow or stop the object.
How is Power related to Velocity
Power = Force x Velocity
Energy in motion