Psychology Ch.4 and Ch.5 Quizzes

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1. Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a ________ psychologist.
a. cognitive
b. developmental
c. biological
d. psychodynamic

b

2. Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the
a. embryo.
b. ovaries.
c. teratogens.
d. placenta.

d

3. Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their
a. attachment style.
b. egocentrism.
c. stranger anxiety.
d. mental abilities.

d

4. The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by
a. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
b. Piaget's cognitive development theory.
c. Harlow's attachment theory.
d. Kohlberg's moral development theory.

b

5. Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a
a. sense of object permanence.
b. concept of conservation.
c. capacity for habituation.
d. secure attachment.

b

6. A child's realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of
a. object permanence.
b. egocentrism.
c. a theory of mind.
d. stranger anxiety.

c

7. The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as
a. menarche.
b. puberty.
c. menopause.
d. a critical period.

d

8. Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of
a. secure attachment.
b. object permanence.
c. egocentrism.
d. conservation.

a

9. "I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
a. preconventional
b. authoritative
c. formal operational
d. authoritarian

d

10. Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
a. conventional
b. unconventional
c. preconventional
d. postconventional

d

11. Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing
a. egocentrism.
b. insecure attachment.
c. role confusion.
d. infantile amnesia.

c

12. A public initiation into adult responsibilities and status is called a
a. social clock.
b. critical period.
c. rite of passage.
d. formal operational stage.

c

13. A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.
a. longitudinal
b. experimental
c. cross-sectional
d. chronological

a

14. The preferred age for retirement is quite different in Mexico than in Western Europe. This best illustrates that ________ differs from culture to culture.
a. the maturational cycle
b. the formal operational stage
c. terminal decline
d. the social clock

d

15. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of
a. continuity and stages.
b. stability and change.
c. concrete and formal operations.
d. nature and nurture.

b

1. Taking certain drugs during pregnancy is likely to expose unborn children to
a. critical periods.
b. role confusion.
c. teratogens.
d. schemas.

c

2. Immediately after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers'
a. faces.
b. voices.
c. temperament.
d. tender touches.

b

3. After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of
a. conservation.
b. assimilation.
c. habituation.
d. accommodation.

d

4. During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
a. theory of mind.
b. concept of conservation.
c. sense of object permanence.
d. capacity for abstract reasoning.

c

5. Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' emotional states is most characteristic of
a. autism.
b. menarche.
c. infantile amnesia.
d. object permanence.

a

6. Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the impact of
a. habituation.
b. temperament.
c. egocentrism.
d. imprinting.

b

7. Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of
a. egocentrism.
b. object permanence.
c. insecure attachment.
d. postconventional morality.

c

9. Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.
a. conventional
b. unconventional
c. preconventional
d. postconventional

c

10. The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect
a. habituation.
b. insecure attachments.
c. affectively laden intuitions.
d. formal operations.

c

11. The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
a. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
b. Piaget's cognitive development theory.
c. Kohlberg's moral development theory.
d. Harlow's attachment theory.

a

12. Menopause involves a decline in
a. attachment.
b. fertility.
c. maturation.
d. social identity.

b

13. The tips of chromosomes that wear down as we age are called
a. teratogens.
b. scaffolds.
c. schemas.
d. telomeres.

d

14. According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of
a. conventional morality.
b. object permanence.
c. conservation.
d. integrity.

d

15. Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of
a. continuity and stages.
b. secure and insecure attachments.
c. concrete and formal operations.
d. generativity and stagnation.

a

1. Compared with teenage boys, teenage girls spend
a. more time with friends.
b. less time in clubs.
c. more time watching TV.
d. less time acting out social relationships.

a

2. Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their
a. gender.
b. relationships.
c. sexual orientation.
d. personality traits.

b

3. Females are LESS likely than males to
a. stare at people who make them angry.
b. be diagnosed with autism.
c. interrupt others who are talking.
d. have another orgasm if restimulated soon after resolution.

c

4. How many human chromosomes are common to both males and females?
a. 22
b. 23
c. 45
d. 46

c

5. Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
a. gender identity.
b. menarche.
c. exhibitionism.
d. kin selection.

b

6. Increasingly, women are expected to take responsibility for political leadership. This best illustrates a change in
a. sexual orientation.
b. gender identity.
c. natural selection.
d. gender roles.

d

7. Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of
a. sex chromosomes.
b. behavior genetics.
c. gender schemas.
d. personal space.

c

8. The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her level of ________ is lowered.
a. blood sugar
b. testosterone
c. X chromosomes
d. Y chromosomes

b

9. Masters and Johnson described four stages of
a. prenatal sexual development.
b. childhood gender typing.
c. the sexual response cycle.
d. gender identity development.

c

10. Mr. Jen experiences distressing and recurrent urges to inflict suffering on other people in order to become sexually aroused. His difficulty best illustrates
a. spermarche.
b. a paraphilia.
c. a sexual dysfunction.
d. erotic plasticity.

b

11. In studies that followed hundreds of New Zealand and U.S. girls from age 5 to 18, ________ was linked to sexual activity before age 16.
a. erotic plasticity
b. a homosexual orientation
c. a father's absence
d. gender typing

c

12. The fraternal birth-order refers to a factor associated with
a. erotic plasticity.
b. refractory periods.
c. gender typing.
d. sexual orientation.

d

13. The variability of sexual urges and interests is called
a. the sexual response cycle.
b. sexual orientation.
c. the refractory period.
d. erotic plasticity.

d

14. Genetically predisposed traits have a reproductive advantage. This fact is best explained in terms of
a. gender typing.
b. natural selection.
c. erotic plasticity.
d. refractory periods.

b

15. Men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with fertility. This suggestion best illustrates
a. social learning theory.
b. Freudian psychology.
c. a biopsychosocial perspective.
d. evolutionary psychology.

d

1. Compared with males, females are ________ likely to be diagnosed with autism and ________ likely to suffer alcohol dependence.
a. more; more
b. less; less
c. more; less
d. less; more

b

2. During their teen years, girls become progressively ________ assertive and boys become progressively ________ domineering.
a. more; more
b. less; less
c. more; less
d. less; more

d

3. A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of external male sex organs.
a. gene; X
b. gender schema; X
c. gene; Y
d. gender schema; Y

c

4. The expectations that men initiate dates and that women select wedding gifts best illustrate aspects of
a. gender identity.
b. the older-brother effect.
c. the sexual response cycle.
d. gender roles.

d

5. The effect of rewards and punishments on gender typing is most clearly emphasized by
a. evolutionary psychology.
b. cognitive neuroscience.
c. Freudian psychology.
d. social learning theory.

d

6. The belief that boys have shorter hair than girls is a
a. gender role.
b. gender schema.
c. sexual orientation.
d. sex characteristic.

b

7. During which stage of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
a. plateau
b. resolution
c. excitement
d. orgasm

b

8. Mr. Smith is distressed because his low sexual interest and lack of sexual arousal prevent him from experiencing satisfying sexual relations with his wife. His difficulty best illustrates
a. a paraphilia.
b. erotic plasticity.
c. a sexual dysfunction.
d. a nocturnal emission.

c

9. Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies.
a. refractory periods
b. autism
c. erotic plasticity
d. STIs

d

10. Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?
a. Virtually all cultures in all times have been predominantly heterosexual.
b. The environmental factors that influence sexual orientation are presently unknown.
c. Identical twins are somewhat more likely than fraternal twins to share a homosexual orientation.
d. With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation.

d

11. Women, more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in
a. sexual orientation.
b. erotic plasticity.
c. refractory periods.
d. the sexual response cycle.

b

12. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that women's more relational approach to sex and men's more recreational approach to sex have contributed to
a. erotic plasticity.
b. reproductory success.
c. refractory periods.
d. the fraternal birth-order effect.

b

13. Evolutionary psychologists attribute gender differences in mating preferences to
a. gender schemas.
b. natural selection.
c. refractory periods.
d. erotic plasticity.

b

14. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute a love of your own children to
a. gender schemas.
b. the anterior commissure.
c. erotic plasticity.
d. genetic predispositions.

d

15. Critics of evolutionary psychology are particularly likely to emphasize that gender differences in mate preference are the result of
a. refractory periods.
b. sex hormones.
c. cultural practices.
d. sexual disorders.

c

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