This organ contributes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatic lipase to the digestion process.
This organ contributes aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, maltase, and lactase to the digestion process.
VFAs, microbial protein, and gasses (CO2 and CH4)
What are the products of microflora activity in the rumen?
Ca deficiency leads to milk fever
Poor growth of grass in unusual climates
Build up of Pasture worms
What are some problems with only feeding cows grass?
Exclude air, reduce moisture, chop, add sugar, add inoculants
What can you do to increase rapid fermentation of silage?
What are some potential hazards of silage fermentation?
Enterobacteria (E. coli), causes diarrhea
What could happen to silage if manure was spread on grass crop, low fermentation rates, and the silage had low acid/high NH3?
Listeria monocytogenes, causes "silage eye" and listeriosis
The silage crop was contaminated with soil, had wet silage, pH >4.5, oxygen, and had mold.
Clostridium botulinum, causes botulism (death)
The silage was contaminated with carcases, wet, and pH >4.6.
Decrease in silage intake during winter
Excessive intake of minerals
Preference for straw
Low milk fat %
What are some clinical signs of acidosis?
What animal is a particulate feeder, has a crop, glandular stomach (proventriculus), and a muscular stomach (gizzard).
Variation: large meals or daily small meals
What kind of feeding behavior do carnivores and omnivores exhibit?
Crude protein and Ether extract are not very accurate. Some crude fiber is dissolved during extraction. NFE (carbohydrates) is just whatever is left, not accurate.
What are some of the problems with TDN?
What is a very dangerous compound that is associated with too much water and mold growth in a feed?
Energy released when a dietary raw material is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
What is gross energy?
Acetate, Butyrate, and propionate
Pyruvic acid differentiates into which three volatile fatty acids?
Metabolizable energy, because methane losses are high
What is the best energy estimate for ruminants?
Add fiber to the diet
What do you do to the diet if there is milk fat depression in your dairy cows?
In non-ruminatnts, as fiber content of the feed goes up what happens to the digestible energy?
Sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds creating pleated sheets or a alpha helix
What is a secondary protein structure?
A protein structure consisting of more than one amino acid chain
What is a quartenary protein structure?
Not all nitrogen in a feed is from protein and does not consider protein quality
What are some problems with crude protein?
Can be synthesized in vivo, but body can not keep up with needs
What is the definition of conditionally essential amino acids?
No, only those absorbed in the small intestines
Are amino acids broken down in the large intestine of use to the animal?
UDP to DUP to MP
RDP to microbial protein to MP
Urea to microbial protein to MP
What are some pathways to get Metabolizable protein?
Not soluble in water, but usually soluble in non-polar organic solvents. Usually related to fatty acids
What is the definition of a lipid?
C18:0 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 0 unsaturated bonds (Stearic acid)
C18:2 Chain with 18 carbon atoms and 2 unsaturated bonds (linoleic acid)
Pancreatic lipase, emulsification, micelle formation, and droplet formation
What are some of the ways that fats are digested?
FA absorbed by stomach, some TAG and DAG from gastric lipase enters small intestine
In what ways are lipids absorbed in young, pre-weaned mammals?
Micelles are formed by bile salts and pancreatic colipase. Then transported by FA binding to FA binding protein and absorbed (expends energy)
How are lipids absorbed in small intestines?
n-6 and n-3 fatty acids
What types of fatty acids must be in diets that are precursors for many other fatty acids and are involved in maintaining cell membranes?
FA compete with EFA for enzymes and some problems with efficiency further down the path
What are some problems with fatty acid conversions?
High genetic potential, too much non-essential fats in diet and too much Ca in diet
What are some of the reasons that animal might be Zn deficient?
Micro encapsulation and antioxidants
What are some ways that EFAs are made more stable during production?
More unstable (fresh and cooked), changes texture of meat, and potential of oxidizing in vivo
What are some increased unsaturated fat problems in pigs?
Mainly beta 1-6 bonds (main structural polysaccharide of plant walls)
What kind of bonds are in cellulose?
Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and oligosaccharides
What are some non-digestible, fermentable polysaccharides?
little digestion in small intestine, fermented into VFAs in caecum
How are non-starch polysaccharides digested?
Processing can help (heating, cooking) before feeding
What can be done to increase digestion of crystalline starch?
Why is calcium important?
ATP and creatine phosphates
Why is phosphorous important?
Component of Haemoglobin, ferrous sulphate and chloride
Why is iron important and what is a good source of it?
Cytochrome oxidase, Tyrosinase, and Monoamine oxidase
What enzyme systems are associated with Copper?
Regulation of intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium
What are the major functions of Vitamin D?
Beta carotene, felids require pre-formed Vitamin A though
What is a naturally occurring pre-cursor of vitamin A?
Increased clotting time, minor injury can lead to internal haemorrhage
What are some signs of Vitamin K deficiency?
Poultry: Anorexia, unsteady gait, stargazing
Young Ruminants: listlessness, circling movements, stargazing, muscle tremors
What are some common problems with thiamine deficiency?
Disorders of nervous, GI and immune systems
Reducted growth rate
What are some symptoms of panthothenic acid deficiency?
Eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5
Which fatty acid that is essential to many animal diets is only found in animals?