Carbohydrate Review. Test 1

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Mr. Patek Ex Phys

1. Adenosine Triphosphate

high energy molecule derived from food (carbs, fats,proteins) that serves as the immediate source of energy for most body functions.

2. Bioenergetics

refers to the process of breaking down an energy substrate and releasing energy. For example, within a glucose molecule, energy is stored within chemical bonds. During bioenergetics the bonds are broken and energy is released.

3. Blood sugar

Also known as glucose and dextrose.

4. Carbohydrate

Classification of a dietary nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the major source of energy for the body. Hexose-the most common sugar.

5. calorie (little c calorie)

Refers to the amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 g of water from 1 degree celsius.

6. Complex Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together; also known as polysaccharides.

7. Dextrose

Similar to glucose and blood sugar.

8. Disaccharides

Simple carbohydrates formed by two monosaccharide units linked together, one of which is glucose. Include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.

9. Epinephrine

Hormone released during the onset of exercise that activate glycogen phosphorolase which in turn activates glycogenolysis.

Exercise Physiology

The study of how the body structure and function are altered by exposure to acute and chronic bouts of exercise.

11. Fiber

Gives plants structure. Cannot be digested by the body. Therefore, a diet high in fiber reduces risk of colorectal cancer and prevents obesity. Lowers blood cholesterol. Controls blood glucose levels.

12. Fructose

Monosaccharide that comes from fruit and honey.

13. Galactose

Monosaccharide that comes from milk.

14. Glucagon

A peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels.

15. Gluconeogenesis

The generation of new glucose.

16. Glucose

Monosaccharide also known as blood sugar and dextrose. C6H12O6

17. Glycogen

Storage form of carbohydrates in animals. Stored in the livers and muscles.

18. Glycogen phosphorylase

Enzyme that converts muscle glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn makes atp which yields a muscle contraction. Also converts liver glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn is put back into the blood when glucose levels are low.

19. Glycogen synthase

enzyme involved into converting glucose to glycogen

20. Glycogenesis

Conversion of glucose to glycogen

21. Glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen into glucose

22. Hexose

most common sugar

23. High Fructose Corn Syrup

comprises any of a group of corn syrups that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose to produce a desired sweetness.

24. Ketosis

buildup of ketones. Happens when fat is not fully broken down.

25. Kilocalorie

1000 calories

26. Metabolism

how our bodies handle energy.

27. Monosaccharides

Any of a class of carbohydrates that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis and that constitute the building blocks of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of at least three carbon atoms, one of which is attached to an oxygen atom to form an aldehyde group (CHO) or a ketone, and the others of which are each attached to a hydroxyl group (OH). Monosaccharides can occur as chains or rings. Fructose, glucose, and ribose are monosaccharides.

28. Norepinephrine

hormone released at the onset of exercise that activates glycogen phosphorolase

29. Oxaloacetate

Bi-product of carbohydrate breakdown used to break fat.

30. Phosphatase-

any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates

31. Polysaccharides

Complex carb made up of monosaccharides. Starch and fiber in plants and glycogen in humans.

32. Simple Carbohydrate

Formed by simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value, divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides.

33. Starch

Storage form of carbohydrates in plants.

34. Substrates

substance acted upon such as by an enzyme

35. Sucrose

glucose and fructose. Also known as table sugar.

36. Table Sugar

Sucrose

37. Water Insoluble Fiber-

Gives bulk to stools. High fiber diets reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Example: whole wheat bread.

38. Water Soluble Fiber-

Slows down the rate of absorption of other carbohydrates. Prevents dramatic rises in blood glucose, helps control symptoms of diabetes. Also hinders absorption of cholesterol in small intestine. Example: Oats.

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