1. Adenosine Triphosphate
high energy molecule derived from food (carbs, fats,proteins) that serves as the immediate source of energy for most body functions.
refers to the process of breaking down an energy substrate and releasing energy. For example, within a glucose molecule, energy is stored within chemical bonds. During bioenergetics the bonds are broken and energy is released.
Classification of a dietary nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the major source of energy for the body. Hexose-the most common sugar.
5. calorie (little c calorie)
Refers to the amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 g of water from 1 degree celsius.
6. Complex Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together; also known as polysaccharides.
Simple carbohydrates formed by two monosaccharide units linked together, one of which is glucose. Include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
Hormone released during the onset of exercise that activate glycogen phosphorolase which in turn activates glycogenolysis.
The study of how the body structure and function are altered by exposure to acute and chronic bouts of exercise.
Gives plants structure. Cannot be digested by the body. Therefore, a diet high in fiber reduces risk of colorectal cancer and prevents obesity. Lowers blood cholesterol. Controls blood glucose levels.
18. Glycogen phosphorylase
Enzyme that converts muscle glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn makes atp which yields a muscle contraction. Also converts liver glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis) which in turn is put back into the blood when glucose levels are low.
23. High Fructose Corn Syrup
comprises any of a group of corn syrups that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose to produce a desired sweetness.
Any of a class of carbohydrates that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis and that constitute the building blocks of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of at least three carbon atoms, one of which is attached to an oxygen atom to form an aldehyde group (CHO) or a ketone, and the others of which are each attached to a hydroxyl group (OH). Monosaccharides can occur as chains or rings. Fructose, glucose, and ribose are monosaccharides.
any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
Complex carb made up of monosaccharides. Starch and fiber in plants and glycogen in humans.
32. Simple Carbohydrate
Formed by simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value, divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
37. Water Insoluble Fiber-
Gives bulk to stools. High fiber diets reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Example: whole wheat bread.