Hundred Years War
This was a series of conflicts between France and England from 1337-1453. It begun with Edward III claiming to be not only King of England but King of France as well. It ended with the English in possession only of the town of Calais
Popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion became known because the nobles derided peasants as "Jaques Bonhomme" (Jim Goodfellow)
organized riots allowed by the state against Jews in the Russian empire conducted by the police and right-wing nationalist groups. The Russian government undermined Jewish community life, limited the publication of Jewish books, restricted areas where Jews could live, required Jews to have internal passports to move about the country, banned Jews from many forms of state service, and excluded Jews from many institutions of higher education.
issued by Pope Boniface in 1302; stated that all were subject to Catholic Church and there is no salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church
The Church's policy where all the income a bishop received in his first year went directly to Rome.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Defender of Peace
This was a document that advocated sovereignty of individuals in society and a reduction of papal authority, because its authors viewed papal authority as the source of most of the problems they faced.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
This was issued by King Charles VIII of France, and it recognized the right of the French church to elect its own clergy without papal interference, prohibited the payment of annates to Rome, and limited the right of appeals from French courts to the Curia in Rome.
Followers of John Wycliffe, they were suppressed in England under Henry V. By this time though, the less fundamental ideas of Wycliffe had spread to the University of Prague and led to reform there.
followers of John Hus, critized the pope and the Catholic Church, invited to the Court of Constance where he was burned at the stake
The Great Schism
two popes were chosen; divided europe; damaged church - people didn't knokw who to worship; ended with election of one new pope
Council of Pisa
In 1408, a council with bishops representing both popes met and elected a new pope, deposing both of the popes they represented. Neither former pope, however, would accept this new rival. Thus, the problem was not solved.
Council of Basel
A general council of the Roman Catholic church held in Basel, Switz. It was called by Pope Martin V a few weeks before his death in 1431 and then confirmed by Pope Eugenius IV. Meeting at a time when the prestige of the papacy had been weakened by the Great Schism (1378-1417), it was concerned with two major problems: the question of papal supremacy and the Hussite heresy.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
The Black Death
by 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation
perpetual tax instituted by the french king louis VI which made it possible for him to rule his domain without the need to call upon the estates general for more funds
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
n. A church office endowed with funds or property for the maintenance of divine service.
Pope John XXII
John XXIII (1881-1963) was pope from 1958 to 1963. He convoked the Second Vatican Council, thus launching a renewal in the Roman Catholic Church and inaugurating a new era in its history.
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
this heresy taught that sacraments are invalid if the minister is impure
This was the movement to replace the papacy with a conciliar council instead of having all the authority with one individual. This movement ended after the Council of Constance.
Council of Constance
A solution was found in a council presided over by the emperor-elect, Sigismund. Cardinals, theologians, etc, from all over Europe met to resolve the conflict. They also attempted to reform the church so that the Great Schism would not be repeated. Martin V, who was not affiliated with any of the former popes, was elected.
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Italians were "firstborn among sons of modern Europe" Developed the revival of antiquity, perfected the concept of the individual, defined the era with secularism. Offered an interpretation of the Renaisssance that illustrates the "Rebirth" of Western Civillization out of the slums of the "Dark Ages".
the conservative "old rich" class that ruled Florence
lower class, poor people of Florence
ruling council of Florence chose from powerful guilds
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Petrach's student and friend who pioneered in Humanism. He's famous for his Decameron and for being an avid collector of manuscripts, assembling an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology.
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Christine de Pisan
An unusual French woman, who earned her living by writing. She was an autocrat who started with love poems, then wrote an autobiographical poem. She was hugely successful, but had to fight stereotypes of women at the time. She was a feminist who used wit and reason to argue against antifeminist ideas, and asked women to develop independent self-worth and not rely on men, who cannot really empathize with women. She saluted Joan of Arc for her dignity as a French citizen and woman. She was an exception, but her writing was the epitomy of ideas of the century.
City of Ladies
Christine de Pisan's most famous work that chronicled the accomplishments of the great women of history.
Florentine Platonic Academy
This was a gathering of Florentine humanists who were interested in the works of Plato and the Neoplatonists: Plotinus, Proclus, Porphyry, and Dionysius.
the appeal of this philosophy lay in its flattering view of human nature. It is distinguished between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans actually lived. Human reason was believed to belong to the former, to which the present knowledge of mathematical and moral truth bore witness. Strong platonic influence can be seen in the Oration on the Dignity of Man
Oration on the Dignity of Man
This work, by Pico della Miandola, is regarded as the most famous Renaissance statement on the nature of humankind. It drew on Platonic teaching to depict humans as the only creatures on earth who possessed free will and could chose to become angels or pigs.
Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated
Leon Battista Alberti
Spread renaissance architecture outside of Italy, Wrote De Re Aedificatoria , Building PALAZZO RUCELLAI
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Venetian; tried to unite design of Michelangelo and color of Titian, dissected bodies to learn anatomy
Treaty of Lodi
a carefully constructed political alliance that helped maintain internal cooperation for protection against invasion. It brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence. These three stood together for decades against Venice and the Papal states to create a balance of power. When a foreign enemy invaded, all three formed a united front. This treaty was brought to an end in 1494 when Naples, supported by Florence and the Borgia pope, Alexander VI, prepared to attack Milan as a result of hostilities begun by Ludovico il Moro of Milan.
(1331-1406) Founder of Civic Humanism; chancellor of Florence; owned a large library that contained 800 books; found Cicero's letters
emergent newly rich merchant class of florence capitalists and bankers; opposed grandi
cosimo de medici
in 1443 he took control of the city. the Medici family ran the government from behind the scenes. using their wealth and personal influence, cosimo and later his son
military brokers that provided mercenary armies to Italian despots.
Letters to the Ancient
Written by Dante Alighhieri. It is about life, death, and life after deat and getting into heaven. The number one reason why not to get into heaven is gossip.
Boccaccio's stories about the plague in Florence
Book of the Courtier
This was a book written by Castiglione. In it, he epitomized the main ideas of Italian humanism. It said a successful man was one who could integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history w/ athletic, musical, and military skillz, all while being polite and exhibiting a high moral character.
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Humanists who made Humanism into a program for educating Italian city state leaders
the use of shading to enhance naturalness in Renaissance painting
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
Ludovico il Moro
a Milanese despot who came to power in 1490s when Milan and Naples started fighting again. Ludovico asked the french king for help and invited them to enter Italy and revive claim to Naples w/out realizing France also had claim to Milan. This caused a bunch of trouble so he joined League of VEnice to kick France out. At Fornova, he allied with Florence and they actually beat France
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Formed the League of Cambrai with the German Emperor Maximilian against Venice.
Italian pope whose nepotism put the Borgia family in power in Italy (1378-1458)
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Pope Julius II
The "Warrior-Pope"; most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter's Basilica.
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
This king of France contributed the most to the consolidation of France. He was often under-estimated as he didn't buy into flashy fashions, and as a result was greatly successful. As many men of the French nobility were killed fighting England and each other, and law dictated that estates without male heirs were inherited by the crown, Louis XI accumulated a great deal of land. He acquired Anjou, Maine, and Bourbon when they had no male heirs, and Brittany and Orleans by arranging marriages involving his children.
Tomas de Torquemada
the Spaniard who as Grand Inquisitor was responsible for the death of thousands of Jews and suspected witches during the Spanish Inquisition (1420-1498)
muslims who converted to catholicism after the conquest of granada to avoid being exiled
Wars of the Roses
A series of wars fought by two English houses, or families, in the late fifteenth century for rule of the country. The House of Lancaster had a red rose as its emblem; the House of York had a white rose. The forces of the House of Lancaster won, and their leader, Henry Tudor, father of the future King Henry VIII, became king.
The first Tudor king that worked to establish a strong monarchical government and ended the private wars of nobles in England.
Stated that the seven main princes of the Holy Roman Empire elected the emperor, and all princes had autonomy. It was issued by Charles IV in 1356 and stated the procedure for choosing and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire: the emperor had to be elected by the Seven Princes and approved by the Pope.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Index of Forbidden books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt. (p.519)
A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, a member of the Spanish Borgia family, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.
After The Hundred Years War, he worked with the Estates-General to estabish a royal army and to levy taille.
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Converted Jews in Spain. They were one of the targets of the Inquisition, in 1492, the Jews were exiled and their properties were seized.
He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses
Court of the Star Chamber
Created by Henry VII who sent lords there when they refused to give up thier private armies (Livery and Maintinance). This asserted overall authority over the lords.
This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions, Humanism had a different effect in Northern Europe where there were not the same econimic and social changes as there were in Italy. Life was much like it was during the Medieval age, and rather than redirecting study to classical, pagan culture, those in the North sought to reconcile humanism with Christianity.
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
the father of German humanism
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island