Cold War mayor of West Berlin who served as chancellor of West Germany (1969-74). He instituted a policy of greater cooperation with eastern communist nations.
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Period of increased cooperation between the US and the USSR. This was undertaken by Pres. Nixon and his Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, in the 1970s. It was a factor in the end of the Cold War and of the USSR.
Polish labor union formed in 1980 after major protests against the Communist labor system in place at the time. In 1981 it was shut down by the Polish Communist leadership, but regained strength in 1989 and openly opposed the Soviet-backed party.
Formed in 1949, was the West's military organization designed to discourage further Soviet expansion and to counter the Warsaw Pact.
An American secret spy plane that was shot down in 1960 while spying on the USSR. The pilot, Gary Powers, was captured alive. The US had insisted it was not spying on the USSR, and the event caused great embarrassment to the US and increased tensions in the Cold War.
Efforts, primarily by the US, to fly in millions of tons of food and heating fuel to over 2 million isolated residents of West Berlin in 1948-49. In an attempt to force ALllied nations out of Berlin, the Soviets blockaded all access to the city, which had been partitioned between Western powers and the Soviet Union at the end of WWII. The US made deliveries until the Soviets finally lifted the blockade. This incident led to the division of Germany into the Federal Republic of Germany in the west and the German Democratic Republic in the east.
A 28 mile wall built by the Soviet Union in 1961 along the border of East and West Berlin to prevent East Germans from leaving for the West. Initially barbed wire, it was soon replaced by a concrete wall topped with barbed wire and gradually extended beyond the two cities to encompass the entire boundry between East and West Germany. It became emblematic of the cold war and kept Germany seperated until the Soviets agreed to remove it in 1989, in part as a gesture they hoped would keep the faltering Communist Party in power.
Powerful center to center-right political parties that evolved in the late 1940s in Europe from former Catholic parties of the pre-WWII period. Christian parties gained increasing support in the postwar era, winning elections in par because of their participation in wartime resistance. A vital component of postwar politics, these groups shifted from their decades-old emphasis on advocating church interests to welcoming non-Catholics among their ranks and focusing on democracy, anti-communism, and social reform.
international organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and progress
US would work in military and non-military ways to prevent communism from spreading around the world
President Truman's 1947 promise that the US would defend peoples from subversion or outside pressure
a massive American aid program announced in 1947 to help European nations recover from World War II
alliance formed in 1949 by Soviet Union and nations of Eastern Europe
the cold war conflict in which UN soliders fought to defend South Korea from takeover by Communist North Korea, ending a stalemate in 1953
Cuban missile crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Bay of Pigs
Kennedy allows CIA to send Cuban exiles in to take out Castro but it fails badly
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy's Marshall Plan for Latin America to establish democratic governments, land reform, economic and social planning; US pledges $20 billion contribution; money wasn't used the way it was intended
Nuclear test ban treaty
July 1963 all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and underwater
Mao disagrees with Khrushchev's cooperation with US; struggling for dominance among communists
started in India of countries that did not want to be on either side of the Cold War; irony in Cuban's membership shows its uselessness
Dubcek's reforms worry Soviets so they crush his reforms August 21; example of Brezhnev Doctrine in action; condemned by world as extreme
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out
Brezhnev says USSR has the right to help communist governments fighting against rebels; results in Czech 1968 and Afghanistan in 1979
Warning that any attempt by outside forces to gain control of the Persian Gulf would be met with military force from the US; created because Soviets were in Afghanistan and too close to Persian Gulf oil
UN General Assembly treaty that nuclear weapons will not be spread or developed, only nuclear energy could be improved
they try to rebel and Soviets crush them; Carter puts embargo on grain; boycotts Moscow Olympics
planned reduction in missiles that is canceled when Soviets invade Afghanistan
US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan
Strategic Defense Initiative
Reagan's Star Wars defense system to shoot down missiles while they're in space
dealt with long-range missiles; Bush and Gorgachev; reduction in long-range nuclear missiles
President Reagan's proposed weapons system to destroy Soviet missiles from space.
policy in the Soviet Union of speaking openly about problems.
nation that is dominated politically and economically by a more powerful nation.
First satelite launched into space by the Soviet Union