Chapter 4 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

63 terms by dinabobina27

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Muscle fibers

are the long, slender cells that make up muscles. Each muscle consists of group fibers that are held togehter by connective tissue and enclosed in fibrous sheath.

Fascia

sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscles or groups of muscles

Myofascial

means pertaining to musscle tissue and fascia

Tendon

a narrow band of nonelastic, dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.

Skeletal Muscle

attached to the bones of the skelton snd make body motions possible

Smooth Muscles

located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading form glands

Myocardial Muscles

also known as myocardium or cardiac muscles, form the muscular walls of the heart

Neuromuscular Muscle

means pertaining to the relationships between nerve and muscle

Contraction

tightnening of a muscle. As the muscle contracts, it become shorter and thicker, causing the belly (center) of the muscle to enlarge

Relaxation

occurs when a muscle returns to its original form. As the muscle relaxes it becomes longer, and thinner, and the belly is no longer enlarged.

Abduction

the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

A contrast in adduction

is the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

Elevation

the act of raising or lifting a body part, such as rising te ribs when breathing in levator is a muscle that raises a body part.

Depression

the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out. A depressor, is a muscle that lowers a body part.

Rotation

circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint. An axis is an imaginary line that runs lenghtwise through the center of the body

Circumduction

circular movement of a limb at the far end. Ex swinging motion of the far end of the arm.

supination

act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward.

Pronation

act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward.

origin

less movable attachment, the place where the muscle begins. the origin is located nearest the midline of the body or on a less movable part of the skelton.

Other Muscles indicate their location by including the term lateralis and medials in their names,

Lateralis means toward the side. Medials means toward the midline.Ex VAtus laterials and the vastus medials. These muscle flex and extend at the leg at knee.

Some muscles indicate their location by including external and internal in their names.

External or superfiscial mean near the surface and internal means deeper location. The external oblique and internal oblique flex and rotate the spinal column and compress the abdomen.

oblique

slanted or at an angle. Ex the external oblique and internal oblique muscles have a slanted alignment

Rectus

straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body. Ex the rectus abdominus muscle has a straight alignment.

Sphincter

a ring like muscle that tightly constricts of the oppening of a passageway. A sphincter is named fpr the passage involved. Ex anal sphincter closes the anus

Transverse

in a crosswire direction. An example is the transverse abdomins muscle, which has a crosswise alignment.

Biceps Branchii

also known as the biceps is formed from two divisions.

Triceps Branchii

also known as the triceps is formed form three divisions.

Rheumatologist

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissue

Atrophy

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

Myocele

hernation(protusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it.

Hernia

protusion of a part or structure through the tissues normally contaning it.

Myorrhexis

ruptur or tearing of a muscle

Dystonia

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movements

Myotonia

a neuromuscular disorder characterized by tge slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction.

Spasmodic Tortucollis

also known as wryneck, is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side. Spasmodic means relating to spasm and torticollis means a contraction, or shortening of the muscles of a neck.

Hyperkinesia

also known as hyperactivity, is abnormally increased muscles function or activity.

Myoparesis

a weakness or slight muscular paralysis

Hemiplegia

total parlysis affecting one side of the body

Parapelgia

paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body. An individual affected with parapelgia is known as paraplegic.

Fasciotomy

surgical incision through the fascia to releive tension or pressure

Fascioplasty

surgical repair of fascia

Tenodesis

surgical suturing of the end of the tendon bone.

Tenectomy

also known as tenoectomy is the surgical resection of a protion of a tendon or tendon sheath.

Tenotomy

also known as a tendomoty is the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by abnormal shortening of a muscle such as strabisum.

adduction

moves toward the midline. During adduction the arm moves inward toward the side of the body.

dorsiflexion

the movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle. Pointing the toes and foot upward decreases the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg.

myositis

muscular discomfort or pain

bi

twice double two

cele

hernia, tumor, swelling

dys

bad, difficult, pain

fasci/o

face, form

fibr/o

fiber

ia

abnormal condition, disease, plural of ium

ic

pertaining to

kines/o, kinesi/o

movement

my/o

muscle

plegia

paralysis, stroke

rrhexis

rupture

tax/o

coordination, order

ten/o,tend/o, tendin/o

tendon strecth out , extend , strain

ton/o

tension, tone, structure

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