word roots #2

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178 terms · word roots

a-, an-

absence, lack

ex. abiotic = absence of life
anaerobic = absence of oxygen

-able

able to, capable of

ex. viable = having the ability of live or exist

actino-

ray

ex. actinomycetes = bacteria that form star-shaped (with rays) colonies

aer-

air

ex. aerate = to add air

albo-

white

ex. streptomyces albus = produces white colonies

amphi-

around

ex. amphitrichous = tufts of flagella at both ends of the cell

amyl-

starch

ex. amylase = an enzyme that degrades starch

ana-

up

ex. anabolism = building up

ant-, anti-

opposed to preventing

antimicrobial = a substance that prevents microbial growth

archae-

ancient

ex. archaeobacteria = "ancient" bacteria thought to be like the first form of life

aur-

gold

ex. staphyococcus aureus = gold pigemented colonies

aut-, auto-

self

ex. autotroph = self-feeder

bacillo-

a little stick

ex. bacillus = rod-shaped

basid-

base

ex. basidium - a cell that bears spores

bio-

life

ex. biology = study of living things

blast-

bud

ex. blastospore = spores formed by budding

bovi-

cattle

ex. myicobacterium bovis = a bacterium found in cattle

brevi-

short

ex. lactobacillus brevis = a bacterium with short cells

campylo-

curved

ex. campylobacter = curved rod

carcin-

cancer

ex. carcinogen = a cancer causing agent

caseo-

cheese

ex. caseous = cheeselike

cerato-

horn

ex. keratin = the horny substance making up skin and nails

chlamydo-

covering

ex. chlamydoconidia = condidia formed inside hyphae

chloro-

green

ex. chlorophyll = green-pigmented molecule

chrom-

color

ex. chromosome = readily stained molecule
metachromatic = intracelluar colored granules

chryso-

golden

ex. steptomyces chryseus = bacteria with golden colonies

-cide

killing

ex. bactericide = an agent that kills bacteria

cili-

eyelash

ex. cilia = a hairlike organelle

co-, con-

together

ex. concentric = having a common center, together in the center

cocci-

a berry/spherical

ex. coccus = a spherical cell

col-, colo-

colon

ex. escherichia coli = a bacterium found in the large intestine

conido-

dust

ex. conidia = spores developed at the end of aerial hypha, never enclosed

-cul

small form

ex. particle = a small part

-cut or cut-

the skin

ex. firmicutes = bacteria with a firm cell wall, gram positive

cyano-

blue

ex. cyanobacteria = blue-green pigmented organisms

cyst-

bladder

ex. cystitis = inflammation of the urinary bladder

cyt-

cell

ex. cytology = the study of cells

de-

undoing, reversal, loss, removal

ex. deactivation = becoming inactive

di-, diplo-

twice, double

ex. diplococci = pairs of spherical bacteria

dia-

through, between

ex. diaphragm = the wall through or between two areas

dys-

difficult, faulty, painful

ex. dysfunction = disturbed function

ec-, ex- ecto-

out, outside, away from

ex. excrete = to remove material from the body

en-, em-

in, inside

ex. encysted = enclosed in a cyst

entero-

intestine

ex. enterobacter = a bacterium found in the intestine

eo-

dawn, early

ex. eobacterium = a 3.4 billion year old fossized bacterium

epi-

upon, over

ex. epidemic = number of cases of a disease over the normally expected number

erythro-

red

ex. erythema = redness of the skin

eu-

well, proper, new

ex. eukaryote = a cell with a proper "kernel"/nucleus

exo-

outside, outer layer

ex. exogenous = from outside the body

extra-

outside, beyond

ex. extracellular = outside the cells of an organism

firmi-

strong

ex. bacillus firmus = forms resistant endospores

flagell-

a whip

ex. flagellum = a projection from a cell; in eukaryotes it pulls cell in a whiplike fashion

flav-

yellow

ex. flavobacterium = cells produce yellow pigment

fruct-

fruit

ex. fructose = fruit sugar

-fy

to make

ex. magnify = to make larger

gamet-

to marry

ex. gamete = reproductive cells

gastr-

stomach

ex. gastritis = inflammation of the stomach

gel-

to stiffen

ex. gel = a solidified colloid

-gen

an agent that initiates

ex. pathogen = any agent that produces disease

-genesis

formation

ex. pathogenesis = production of disease

germ, germin-

bud

ex. germ = part of an organism capable of developing

-gony

reproduction

ex. schizogony = multiple fission producing many cells

gracili-

thin

ex. aquaspirillum gracile = a thin cell

halo-

salt

ex. halophile = an organism that can live in high salt concentrations

haplo-

one, single

ex. haploid = half the number of chromosomes

hema-, hemato-, hemo-

blood

ex. haemophilius = a bacterium that requires nutrients from blood cells

hepat-

liver

ex. hepatitis = inflammation of the liver

herpes

creeping

ex. herpes = lesions appear to creep along the skin

hetero-

different, other

ex. heterotroph = obtains organic nutrients from other organisms; other feeder

hist-

tissue

ex. histology = the study of tissues

hom-, homo-

same

ex. homofermenter = an organism that produces on one type of acid from carbohydrate fermentation

hydr-, hydro-

water

ex. dehydration = loss of body water

hyper-

excess

ex. hypertonic = having greater osmotic pressure in comparison with another

hypo-

below, deficient

ex. hypotonic = having a lessor osmotic pressure in comparison with another

im-

not, in

ex. impermeable = not permitting passage

inter-

between

ex. intercellular = between cells

intra-

within, inside

ex. intracellular = within a cell

io-

violet

ex. iodine = a chemical element that produces a violet vaper

iso-

equal, same

ex. isotonic = having the same osmotic pressure in comparison with another

-itis

inflammation

ex. colitis = inflammation of the large intestine

-karyo, -caryon

a seed, nut

ex. eukaryote = a cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus

kin-

movement

ex. streptokinase = an enzyme that lyses of moves fibrin

lacti-

milk

ex. lactose = the sugar of milk

leuko-

whiteness

ex. leukocyte = a white blood cell

lip-, lipo-

fat, lipid

ex. lipase = an enzyme that breaks down fat

-logy

the study of

ex. pathology = the study of changes in structure and function brought on by disease

lute-, luteo-

yellow

ex. micrococcus luteus = has yellow colonies

-lysis

loosening

ex. hydrolysis = chemical decompostion of a compound into other compounds as a result of taking up water

macro-

largeness

ex. macromolecules = large molecules like lipis, proteins and carbohydrates

meningo-

membrane

ex. meningitis = inflammation of the membranes of the brain

meso-

middle

ex. mesophile = an organism whose optimum temperature is in the middle range

meta-

beyond, between, transition

ex. metabolism = chemical changes occurring within a living organism

micro-

smallness

ex. microscope = and instrument used to make small objects appear large

-monas

a unit

ex. Methylomonas = a unit (bacterium) that utilizes methane as its carbon source

mono-

singleness

ex. monotrichous = having one flagellum

morpho-

form

ex. morphology = the study of the form and structure of organisms

multi-

many

ex. multinuclear = having several nuclei

mur-

wall

ex. murein = a component of bacterail cell walls

mus-, muri-

mouse

ex. murein typhus = a form of typhus endemic in mice

mut-

to change

ex. mutation = a sudden change in characteristics

myco-, -mycetoma, -myces

a fungus

ex. Saccharomyces = sugar fungus, a genus of yeast

myxo-

slime, mucus

ex. Myxobacteriales = an order of slime producing bacteria

necro-

a corpse

ex. necrosis = cell death or death of a portion of tissue

-nema

a thread

ex. Treponema = has long, threadlike cells

nigr-

black

ex. Aspergillus niger = a fungus that produces black conidia (reproductive structures)

ob-

before, against

ex. obstruction = impeding or blocking up

oculo-

eye

ex. monocular = pertaining to one eye

-oecium, ecium

a house

ex. perithecium = an ascus with an opening that encloses spores

-oid

like, resembling

ex. coccoid = resembling a coccus

oligio-

small, few

ex. oligiosaccharide = a carbohydrate composed of a few (7-10) monosaccharides

-oma

tumor

ex. lymphoma = a tumor of the lymphatic tissues

ortho-

straight, direct

ex. orthomyzovirus = a virus witha straight, tubular capsid

-osis, -sis

condition of

ex. lysis = the condition of loosening; symbiosis = the condition of living together

pan-

all universal

ex. pandemic = an epidemic affecting a large region

para-

beside, near

ex. parasite = an organism the "feeds beside" another

peri-

around

ex. peritrichous = projections from all side

phaeo-

brown

ex. Phaeophyta = brown algae

phago-

eat

ex. phagocyte = a cell that engulfs and digests particles or cells

-phil, philo-

liking, preferring

ex. thermophile = an organism that prefers high temperatures

-phore

bears, carries

ex. conidophore = a hypha that conidia

-phyll

leaf

ex. chlorophyll = the green pigment in leaves

-phyte

plant

ex. saprophyte = a plant that obtains nutrients from decomposing organic matter

pil-

a hair

ex. pilus = a hairlike projection from a cell

plankto-

wandering, roaming

ex. plankton = organisms drifting or wandering in water

-pnoea, -pnea

breathing

ex. dyspnea = difficultly in breathing

pod-

foot

ex. psuedopod = footlike structure

poly-

many

ex. polymorphism = many forms

post-

after, behind

ex. posterior = a place behind a (specific) part

pre-, pro-

before, ahead of

ex. prokaryote = a cell without a nucleus; pregnant = before birth

pseudo-

false

ex. pseudopod = false foot

psychro-

cold

ex. psychrophile = an organism that grows best at low temperatures

pyo-

pus

ex. pyogenic = pus forming

rhabdo-

stick, rod

ex. rhabdovirus = an elongated bullet-shaped virus

rhin-

nose

ex.rhinitis = inflammation of mucous membranes in the nose

rhizo-

root

ex. Rhizobium = a bacterium that grows in plant roots: mycorrhiza = a fungus that grows in or on roots

rhodo-

red

ex. Rhodospirillum = a red-pigmented, spiral-shaped bacteria

rubri-

red

ex. Clostridium rubrium = has red pigmented colonies

rumin-

throat

ex. Ruminococcus = a bacterium associated witha a rumen (modified esophagus)

saccharo-

sugar

ex. disaccharide = a sugar consisting of two simple sugars

sapr-

rotten

ex. Saprolegnia = a fungus that lives on dead animals

schizo-

split

ex. schizomycetes = organisms that reproduce by splitting and an early name for bacteria

scolec-

worm

ex. scolex = the "head" of a tapeworm

-scope, -scopic

watcher

ex. microscope = an instrument used to watch small things

semi-

half

ex. semicircular = having the form of a half a circle

sept-

rotting

ex. septic = presence of bacteria that could cause decomposition

siphon-

tube

ex. Seiphonaptera = the order of fleas, insects with tubular mouths

soma-

body

ex. somatic cells = cells of the body other than gametes

speci-

particular things

ex. species = the smallest group of organisms with similar properties; specify = to indicate exactly

spiro-

coil

ex. spriochete = a bacterium with a coiled cell

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