Classifications of Disease
1.Heredity 2.Constitution 3.Genetic Info 4.Trauma 5.Physical Agents 6.Chemical Poisons 7.Infections 8.Inflammation 9.Vascular 10.Metabolic 11.Nutritional 12.Drugs 13.Iatrogenic 14.Idiopathic 15.Tumor
How strong/resistant are you
Genetic Info classification
Chromosome, Genes, RBC's and WBC's
Physical Agents classification
Temperature, heat, electrical, radiation, atmospheric pressure
Most common cause is bacteria
Caused by blood supply; disease in arteries/veins
Enzymes, hormones, secretory products
Angular chelitis (Vitamin B12 deficiency)
Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)
Eyes (Vitamin A and K deficiency)
Rickets disease (Vitamin D deficiency)
Beri Beri (Vitamin B1 deficiency)
Cause adverse reaction
Caused by a professional
Single cell integration
Simplest form of integration. T lymphocytes (Interleukins, stimulate growth factors)
More complex cell integration
Transmission of hormonal signals from one cell to another
(epinephrine, hydrocholoride-upset stomach)
Higher form of cell integration
Endocrine stimulating hormones are released into blood stream (insulin).
To maintain cell life and normal functions
What is needed to maintain homeostasis?
1.Essential minerals 2.Sodium 3.Chloride 4.Potassium 5.Calcium 6.Iron
When equilibrium between cells and their environment is achieved and maintained.
Reversible Cell damage
Sublethal damage; nucleus is unchanged and cell returns to normal.
Causes of reversible cell damage
1.Hypoxia - lack of oxygen
2.Anoxia - no oxygen
What happens if Hypoxia and Anoxia occur?
The cytoplasm swells/changes
Reversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?
1.Hydropic or Vacuole change 2.Mitochondrial swelling (low amplitude swelling) 3.Vacuoles 4.Cloudy swelling (swelling of ER and mitochondria) 5.Fatty change (fat appears in cell)
If we have sublethal damage...
It is going to cause (us/cell) less energy, less efficient, acidic environment and we have decrease in protein synthesis.
Irreversible Cell damage causes what cellular changes?
1.Persistent injury 2.Destruction of the cristae (swelling) 3.Mitochondria is permanently damaged 4.Depletion of ATP 5.Nuclear changes most characteristic
Irreversible Cell damage appears in what 3 ways?
1.Pyknosis 2.Karyorrhexis 3.Karyolysis
high amplitude swelling
1.Chromosomes become more dense due to condensation
2.Nucleus become small and basophilic
3.DNA does not function
Formation of small particles
Nucleus dissolves; chromatin ceases to develop
Causes of Cell Injury
1.Hypoxia 2.Toxic 3.Microbial 4.Inflammation 5.Genetic and Metabolic Disorders
Reduction in amount of oxygen; reversible or irreversible
Mercury, other drugs
Bacteria, food poisoning, etc
Cell adaptions to injury
1.Atrophy 2.Hypertrophy 3.Hyperplasia 4.Metaplasia 5.Intracellular accumulations (Anthracosis and Hemosiderosis)
Decrease in cell size; tissue or organ
Increase in size due to increase in size of cells
Increase in size due to increase in number of cells
Reversible change; cell changes from one type to another
Accumulation of biproducts that prevent normal functioning of cell
Accumulation of coal particles
Accumulation of brown pigment
Caused by increased caloric content. Inhibits degradation enzymes and the utilization of internal fat. Inhibits protein synthesis and export of fat.
Cell death - exogenous source(outside)
Active form of cell death; injury from inside
Examples of Necrosis
1.Coagulative 2.Liquefactive 3.Caseous 4.Gummatous 5.Hemorrhagic 6.Fat 7.Fibrinoid
Most common type; dead tissue appears firm and pale as if cooked. Small number of lysosomes, generally can see some healthy characteristics.
Dead tissue appear semi-liquid; dissolves
Specialized form of coagulative; appears soft, white and cream cheese in appearance.
Dead tissue that is firm and rubbery
Contain large amounts of fat
Vital process inhibited
Necrosis cell morphology
Necrosis cell membrane
Phagocytosis by neutrophils
May be exogenous or endogenous
Apoptosis cell morphology
Rounded up; fragmented
Apoptosis cell membrane
Phagocytosis by macrophages