Anatomy Chapter Terms 2

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Acids

A substance that can release hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts. having a sour taste and can dissolve many metals of burn a hole in your rug. pH below 7

Adenosine triphospate (ATP)

Provides a form of chemical energy that all body cells can use. WIthout this, molecules cannot be made or broken down, cells cannot maintain boundaries, and all life processes stop.

Amino Acids

small molecules that are the building blocks of proteins.

Atomic Mass

The sum of the masses of all the protons and neutrons contained in an atoms nucleus.

Atomic Number

number given to an element equal to the number of protons its atoms contain.

Atom

The building blocks of elements.

Bases

Hydroxides ionize and dissociate in water releasing hydroxyl ions (OH-)

Buffer

Regulates the acid base balance in the body.

Carbohydrates

Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Chemical reaction

Occur whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms.

Compound

When two or more different atoms bind together to form a molecule.

Covalent Bond

Bond formed from molecules where atoms share electrons.

Decomposition Reaction

Occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms or ions. AB->A+B

Dehydration synthesis

A water molecule is lost and forms a bond.

Deoxyribonucleic acid

nucleic acid found in all living cells:carries the organism's hereditary information.

Electrolytes

Substances that conduct an electrical current in solutions.

Electron Shells

Orbits or fixed regions of space around the nucleus that electrons occupy.

Electrons

Negatively charged atomic particles.

Elements

Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.

Energy

The ability to do work or to put matter into motion.

Enzyme(catalyst)

functional proteins that act as biological catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself.

Exchange reactions

Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions. AB+C->AC+B and AB+CD->AD+CB

Hydrogen Bond

Extremely weak bonds formed when a hydrogen atom binds to one electron hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom is attracted to another electron hungry atom and a bridge if formed between them.

Hydrolysis

A water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broken and releases simple sugars.

Inorganic compounds

Lack carbon and tend to be small, simple molecules.

Ionic bonds

Bond formed when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.

Ions

Charged particles

Lipids

A large group of organic compounds - contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with more carbon and hydrogens than oxygens.

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Molecules

When two or more atoms combine chemically.

Neutralization reaction

The type of exchange reaction in which an acid and a base interact.

Neutrons

Uncharged, or neutral atomic particles.

Nucleic Acids

Determine what type of or

Organic compounds

Carbon containing compounds.

pH

Measures the relative concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in various solutions.

proteins

the main building material of all cells.

protons

Atomic particles with a positive charge.

radioactivity

Process of spontaneous atomic decay.

radioisotopes

Heavier isotopes of certain atoms are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable.

reactant

a substance that takes part in and undergoes a chemical change during a reaction.

Isotopes

Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons they contain.

ribonucleic acid(RNA)

the nucleic acids that contains ribose acts in protein synthesis. Present in all living cells. Principal role is to aid as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins.

solute

the dissolved substance in a solution.

solution

a homogenous mixture of two or more components.

solvent

the liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.

synthesis reaction

Occur when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule. A+B->AB

valence shell

An atoms outermost electron shell.

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