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A sociological analysis of childbearing around the world suggests that the number of children born to a woman reflects:

whether she herself was born into a poor or rich society.

Auguste Comte

Credited with developing & coining sociology. Taught that the scientific method should be applied to sociology. Believed that certain laws governed society, which, if discovered, could be used to perfect society. Denied the existence of free-will.

Because there is more social isolation in rural areas of the United States than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be:

higher in rural areas.

C. Wright Mills

He teaches that sociology should be used to promote reform.

Case study

Study that focuses on one event.

Conflict Theory

Developed by Karl Marx. Similar to Functionalism. Holds that just beneath the surface of properly functioning society is conflict between different groups fighting for power, wealth, and status.

Counter-cultures

Cultures that exist within a larger culture, but are resisted by the larger culture.

Cultural leveling

Cultures become more alike.

Cultural Relativism

Recognizing that cultures differ and judging someone's actions based on knowledge of their culture.

Documentation

Creating or using written material.

Emerging value

Something new that has appeared that shows a societal change is coming.

Emile Durkheim

He wanted to separate sociology from economics and history. Believed that not everything could be understood by studying the individual. He studied suicide and said that protestants, singles, and men were the most likely to commit suicide. Said that suicide was a social, as well as, personal decision.

Ethnocentrism

Using your culture to judge others from a different culture.

Folkway

A norm that is not strictly enforced.

Functionalism (or Functional Analysis)

Developed by Robert Merton. Views society as a whole and tries to find what parts (institutions and organizations) make up the society and make it function. Holds that when the parts are functional, society is functional and vice versa.

Heisenberg Uncertainty principle

What you observe, you change.

Herbert Spencer

An Englishman who applied Darwinism to society. He coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" and claimed that the fittest people tended to survive and had the right to survive. He believed that societies should never be disturbed, so they could evolve to perfection.

If you were trying to measure the "social class" of various people, you would have to keep in mind that:

it is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring.

In making judgments about how society should be improved, the ________ approach in sociology rejects Max Weber's goal that researchers be value-free.

critical

In the box about Barbara Ehrenreich working at low-wage jobs, we learned that she:

worked very hard but never made enough money to pay for her basic needs.

Inductive logical thought involves:

transforming specific observations into general theory.

Interpretive sociology is sociology that:

focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.

Jane Addams

Founded Hull House. Fought for an 8-hour work-day.

John Locke

Believed that, if a person was educated properly, he would become the perfect adult.

Karl Marx

Taught that man should try to change his society through revolution. Believed that economics prompted change, and that two specific classes would be in eternal conflict until the lower finally overthrew the higher, resulting in the perfect society.

Latent Functions

Unexpected or unforeseen results of actions.

Lois Benjamin's investigation of racism may be criticized because:

her sample may not be representative of all African Americans.

Manifest Functions

Expected results of actions.

Max Weber (pronounced "Mox Vaber")

Wanted to find the source of capitalism. He studied religion and said that, in general, protestants were hard working and frugal (as opposed to Catholics). Taught that religion, not economics, prompted change.

Mean

Average of all the numbers.

Median

The middle number(s) (or entry?). It has the same number of entries above it as below it.

Mode

The number that occurs most frequently.

Moral Holiday

A time when it is acceptable for you to step over the normal moral boundaries to some extent.

Mores

Norms that are strictly enforced.

Norms

Things that are acceptable in a given culture.

Positivism

The belief that society is governed by laws in much the same way that nature is governed by laws.

Sapir & Whorf

Originated the idea that when we learn a language, we also internalize the culture that is specific to the language.

Secondary analysis

Using information that other people have collected.

Sub-groups

Cultures that peacefully exist within a larger culture

Symbolic Interactionism

Developed by Charles Cooley. The belief that symbols are important to the understanding of the world around us. Symbols tell us how to define and interact with the world.

Taboo

A norm that is so strictly enforced that, if you break it, you could be removed from society.

Talcott Parsons

He believes that sociology should only be used to study and build models of society.

The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:

must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research.

The major goal of sociology's pioneers, including Comte and Durkheim, was:

to discover how society actually operates.

W. E. B. duBois

Worked closely with Jane Addams. Was a co-founder of the NCAAP and influential in the founding of the ACLU. Was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard. Believed that only revolution would enable blacks to have equal civil rights as other Americans. Eventually left the US and died in Ghana.

W.E.B. Du Bois claimed that _____ was the major problem facing the United States during the twentieth century.

race

We would expect the sociological perspective to be most likely to develop in a place that was:

experiencing many social changes.

What might a sociologist say about people's selection of marriage partners?

Typically, a person marries someone of similar social position.

What research method was used in Philip Zimbardo's study, the "Stanford County Prison"?

the experiment

Which of the following early sociologists had an important influence on the development of the social-conflict approach?

Karl Marx

Which of the following is the best example of a latent function of going to college?

keeping young people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them

Which of the following would be the focus of a social-conflict analysis of sports?

how sports reflect social inequality

Which sociological research method is best used to study what cannot be directly observed, such as attitudes and values, among large numbers of people?

the survey

Which sociological research method is likely to be most difficult to replicate (repeat)?

participant observation

Which sociological research method saves the time and expense of data gathering, but the researcher has no control over possible data bias?

secondary analysis

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