Italian Renaissance sculptor and painter who lived and worked through the early and High Renaissance. Notable works include the sculpture of David and the painting on the Sistine Chapel.
Leonardo da Vinci
The classic example of a Renaissance man, lived during the mid and High Renaissance, moved to Milan from Florence and worked as artist and engineer for the Sforza family there, made the first scientific illustrations, later worked in Rome for Pope Leo X, works include The Last Supper, Mona Lisa.
Painter who lived during the High Renaissance and did works including The School of Athens. He was had a competitive friendship with Michelangelo. Also oversaw the reconstruction of Rome and helped with the excavations .
First great painter of the early Renaissance. Advanced depth, perspective, and realism in painting; his paintings felt like they could be walked into.
Pico della Mirandola
Writer and humanist of the mid-late Renaissance who wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man (AKA humanist manifesto), claimed man's reason for being better than all other creatures was his ability to create and that man had no predetermined fate or limits to our potential.
"The Father of Humanism", founding humanist, lived in the early Renaissance, lived in Avignon during the migration of the Papacy to that location. Collected and copied classical manuscripts.
Writer of the High Renaissance who wrote The Prince, was pessimistic towards human nature, believed a strong ruler did whatever was necessary to stay in power and keep his state united.
Naturalist painter of the early Renaissance who mastered perspective, works include The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden and The Adoration of the Magi.
Ruling family of Florence throughout the most of the Renaissance. Cosimo de' Medici and grandson Lorenzo de' Medici were the most successful heads of the family. Were great patrons of all things Renaissance.
Heavily urbanized Northern Italian city state composed of many small islands. Important trading city, traded with the East via the Adriatic Sea; shipbuilding, glass production. Ruled by an oligarchic republic.
Heavily urbanized Oligarchic republic city-state in Northern Italy, Renaissance began here and remained a center of the Renaissance until the period's decline, ruled by the Medici (behind the scenes), trade, banking, production of wool, supplied funds to the combatants of the Hundred Years War.
Northern Italian city-state that was taken over by the condottiere Sforza who became its despot, arms and armor production, trade, supplied arms to the combatants of the Hundred Years War.
Southern Italian city state, least urbanized than the other city states, ruled by a monarchy, relied heavily on agriculture to support its economy.
The Papal States (Rome)
Based out of Rome, ruled by the Pope, church finance and agriculture made up its economic base, not very much urbanization.
Popolo grasso "fat people"
Nobility, wealthy merchants, and manufacturers that represented the highest tier of social structure in the city states of Renaissance Italy.
A general/strategist who led a professional, contracted army who fought for whichever city state paid them the best alongside said city state's militia. E.g. Sforza, Honey Cat.
A representative government led by the wealthy and powerful of a city state; families often held much of this power or worked from behind the scenes during the Renaissance.
Condottiere who married into Milan's ruling family, eventually staging a coup and becoming its dictator.
Representative elected by the Senate of Venice.
The Great Council
Representative body put in place to govern Florence during the High Renaissance after the overthrow of the Medici family.
Tusan poet who lived just before the Renaissance took off in Italy, wrote the allegorical Divine Comedy, named specific people who he saw in hell in Inferno (hell part of the Divine Comedy) including pope.
Florentine administrative body of nine members elected by the guilds of the city, proposed laws and handled foreign affairs.
Cosimo de' Medici
Head of the Medici family during the Early Renaissance who took control of Florentine politics after England defaulted on its debt from the Hundred Years War, banished important people from other families, family was wealthy due to banking and textiles.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Head of Medici family towards the end of Early Renaissance, beginning of High Renaissance, was nearly assassinated, major patron of the arts, depicted in several works of Renaissance art, opened up banking between the pope and Medici.
Relocation of the papacy to Avignon in France that lasted well into the Early Renaissance, popes were controlled by French kings, Petrarch lived here.
Belief that man is the best focus of study (because God had made man with the power to create), revival of the classics of the Greco-Romans, reviving and correcting classical works, and creating new works in the style of the classics.
Instead of the Medieval idea of one being part of a group, the individual man was celebrated during the Renaissance and his ideas, creations, and thoughts were highly valued.
Belief from the Renaissance stating that it is not bad to accumulate works of art, jewelry, etc. because they are the result of god's gift to man (the ability to create), nor was it wrong to be comfortable in this life or prevent one from reaching heaven.
Renaissance term meaning that one had developed their skills and talents to their utmost extent.
Taking pride in one's city state as well as giving your talents to the bettering of the city state, being prepared to defend it, and boasting about the prosperity and accomplishments of your city state.
A man during the Renaissance who had virtu. Think Leonardo da Vinci.
Female humanist during the Early Renaissance who quit her secular life to pursue religion and religious scholarship who wrote about how she was sorry that women had failed in the Garden of Eden and weren't as good as men. Shows the status of women in the Renaissance.
Florentine Architect from the Early Renaissance who used classical styles in his buildings and produced the dome of Florence's cathedral, a great feat of engineering.
Pope Leo X
Pope during the High Renaissance from the Medici family who was a humanist and patron of the arts, bringing Leonardo da Vinci and a number of other artists and humanists into his court.
Venetian artist who lived through and past the High Renaissance, wanted to bring the viewer closer to the idea of true beauty (in his works of Venus),
Philosophy from the late fifteenth-early sixteenth century that states timeless ideas such as beauty and truth and that the mind could understand these concepts in a way beyond nature and thus touch God, so it's a combination of Plato's philosophy and Christianity.
Artist of the early-mid Renaissance who used foreshortening to make work like it projected outward, e.g. The Dead Christ.
Sculptor of the early-mid Renaissance who developed ways to take complex subjects and apply realism to them, most notable work is his statue of David.
Period from 1490-1530 during which foreign pressures moved the patronage of artists by wealthy families to the Church. Some of the Renaissance's greatest works were made in this period. E.g. David.
Pope of the High Renaissance who commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel and the statue of Moses for his tomb, named after Caesar, last pope to command his army in battle.
Artistic style of the high Renaissance, characteristics were by heightened scale, exaggerated drama, and detail for emotional effect, depicted emotional and distorted subjects, ignored perspective at times, was a reaction to the idealism of the Renaissance
The Peace of Lodi / Italian League
Treaty signed between Milan, Florence, and Venice in the mid Renaissance (1454) that helped to keep the Turks and French at bay, produced four decades of peace and some of the Renaissance's greatest accomplishments.
Pope Alexander VI
High Renaissance pope who supported the Louis XII's invasion of Italy, terminated the French king's marriage so that he could remarry and retain control of Brittany, excommunicated and approved the execution of Savonarola.
Dominican monk during the mid Renaissance who opposed the Medici and welcomed Charles VIII's invasion of Italy, took control of Florence when the Medici lost power, denounced some actions of the Church and was thus excommunicated, Pope Alexander VI allowed his enemies in Florence to execute him for heresy.
French king during the High Renaissance who invade Italy in an attempt to take over Milan, was supported by Pope Alexander VI who wanted help to secure his territories in the Papal States.
Work by Niccolo Machiavelli that set forth his ideas on ruling with cruelty and fear if/when necessary, the natural evil of men, and the idea of the end justifies the means when ruling (in order to maintain stability).
Who/what - Architect and painter who first had idea of Renaissance; coined the term rinascita ('rebirth') and talked about rebirth of painting; helps define difference between medieval and renaissance; opposed medieval architecture and called it gothic; wrote The Lives of the most Illustrious Artists.
Guy during the 1840s in France who coined the term Renaissance to describe France's return to glory as a state in 1494.
Nineteenth century historian who captured the zeitgeist (spirit of the times) of history instead of just listing political events, wrote about the values, culture, and people of the Ren. in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, writes like the Ren. happened overnight which made people in the mid 1900s to think the Ren. never happened.
Hundred Years War
War between England and France over a disputed succession to the throne that created lots of wealth in Milan and Florence, who supplied arms/armor and funds, respectively.
Bardi and Peruzzi Families
Florentine banking families, Edward II King of England during 100 Years War defaulted on his loans from them, they went bankrupt allowing other small banking families to take over the banking industry, e.g. Medici family.
Artist who shows the egotistic corruption of individualism towards the end of the Ren., refused to make medal like the Pope commissioned him to do because pope's idea "sucked", stabbed a guy for insulting his work.
Emphasis on living well in this world instead of being totally focused on the afterlife and understanding the economics, social, intellectual, and political activities in this world.
Appreciation and enjoyment of the natural world, these studies led them to be able to depict nature, cityscapes, and man in a more natural way.
The variety of man made and natural things during the Renaissance that came about as a result of seeing such variety in nature and thinking why not apply this to our creations as well (God made man with the ability to create).
Oration on the Dignity of Man
Greatest work of Pico della Mirandola that refuted the belief that man was great because of his intellect and reason and stated that man was great because of his ability to create (from God) known as the spark of the divine.
High Renaissance satirist who worked under the patronage of many wealthy people in Venice, Florence, and elsewhere, made fun of pretty much every celebrity except himself (because he thought he was divine).
Mid-high Renaissance architect who constructed St. Peter's Basilica in Rome (used the style of Mannerism) and its dome.