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the ideological perspective that advocates measured change to improve the existing social order without fundamentally transforming it is...

liberalism

in any society and macrostructure, this ideological perspective is usually most popular:

conservatism

during the american revolution, those who fought for capitalism and democracy:

radicals

members of the capitalist class:

never have to enter the labor market

in the u.s. today, the working class:

are always in danger of unemployment

according to the radical view of class:

the interests of one class are in direct conflict with interests of the other

social stratification is a concept that refers to:

society ranking categories of ppl in a hierarchy

because of social stratification in the u.s.:

some ppl have more privileges and opportunities than others do

sandar lives in a village with a caste system. his social position is mostyl a result of:

birth-which family he was born into

the replacement of caste systems with class systems:

replaces one kind of inequality with another

the concept meritocracy refers to social stratification:

based entirely on personal merit

the concept ideology refers to:

cultural beliefs that justify social stratifcation

according to davis and moore, inequality promotes productivity:

by motivating ppl to work longer, harder, or better, encouraging ppl to get schooling and skills, and encouraging ppl to want to have more important jobs

while the davis and moore thesis suggests "to each according to the importance of one's work," karl marx supported the idea:

"from each according to his ability, to each according to need"

the text gives several reasons that a social revolution did not take place as marx predicted. what are the reasons it didnt happen?

living standards rose, the law affords workers far greater legal protection, and stock places ownership of companies in the hands of lots of ppl

karl marx belived that socialism would end social stratification by abolishing provate property. what was webers view?

weber warned that socialism would generate a new elite based on govt power

evidence suggests that, as the u.s. moves into the post-industrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is:

increasing

the lowest ranking 40 percent of u.s. families has about:

no wealth at all

which of the following concepts refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents?

intergenerational social mobility

in terms of race, two-thirds of all poor people in the u.s. are:

white

the feminization of poverty refers to the fact that in the u.s.:

a larger share of the poor are women

which of the following statements is true about homeless ppl in the u.s?

over one third of all homeless ppl are entire families

which of the following concepts refers to social organzation in which male dominates females?

patriarchy

which of the following concepts refers to attitudes and activites that a society links to ppl of each sex?

gender roles

in observing children at play, janet lever concluded that:

boys favor games with clear winners and losers

the beauty myth refers to the idea that;

women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance

pink collar work refers to what type of jobs?

clerical

the concept comparable worth refers to the idea that:

women should receive the same pay as men for work that is equally important

which factors accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working women and men in the u.s.?

differences in the type of work men and women do

which of the following concepts refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?

"glass ceiling"

which of the following is at the heart of the controvery over womens participation in the military?

women are defined by our culture as nurturers rather than ppl who kill

which of the following statements is the best reason to see women as a minority in the u.s.?

at every class level, women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do

intersection theory focuses on:

the interplay of race, class, and gender often leading to multiple disadvantages

most violence against women occurs:

in the home

talcott parsons described gender in terms of:

complemantarity

friedrich engels claimed that capitalism:

increased mens domination of women

what type of feminism accepts the basic organization of u.s. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?

liberal feminism

what type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender intself?

radical feminism

race is:

a sociall constructed category who share traits that society deems important

which of the following refers to cultural heritage?

ethnicity

which of the following concepts refers to a category of ppl, distinguished by physical or cultural traits, who are socially disadvantaged?

minority

what is true about minorities?

have a distinctive identity, doesnt have to be a numerical minority, and ppl can readily identify a member of a minority

whicih of the following concepts refers to a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of ppl?

prejudice

stereotypes refers to"

exaggerated descriptions applied to everyone in some category

which of the following concepts refers to a belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another?

racism

based on the scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is created by:

frustration among disadvantaged ppl

conflict theory states that prejudice is:

used by powerful ppl to justify oppressing others

while prejudice is a matter of ____, discrimination is a matter of ____.

attitudes;action

institutional discrimination

discrimination occuring in institutions such as hospital, school, or bank

which of the following concepts refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minoorities are distinct but have rough social equality?

pluralism

assimilation refers to the pattern by which

minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category

which of the following concepts refers to the physical and social seperation of categories of ppl?

segregation

douglas massey and nancy denton studied racial segregation in the u.s. cities and documented which of the following patterns?

hypersegregation

the posindustrial economy is defined by

computer technology

the concept global economy refers to

expanding economic activity that moves across national borders

globalization of the economy means that

a small number of businesses control a large share of the planets economy, more and more products pass thu several nations, and world regions specialize in one sector of economic activity

capitalism is an economic system in which there is

private ownership of productive property

in a capitalist economic system, justice amounts to

marketplace freedorm-buying or investing according to self-interest

the u.s. is considered a mostly capitalist nation because

the vast mjaority of productive businesses are privately owned

in a socialist economic systems, justice means

trying to meet the basic needs of all

authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudiced is

a trait of certain individuals

c. wrigth milla pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread

in times of social crisis

marx used the concept of labor power to refer to

the capacity to work

in marxist theory, the superstructure is extremely important to capitalism because

it provides justification for inequalities that the working class accepts

surplus labor time

is invisibly appropriated under the capitalist macrostructure

according to marxist theory, what is the relationshio between capitalism and socialism?

capitalism must come before socialism

unless marx, max weber:

viewed alienation, bureaucracy, and rationalization as permanent features

when the distributions of positions is inconsistend with the distribution of talents and abilities, durkheim called this

forced division of labor

c. wright mills termed the ability to perceive the intersections of history and biography

sociological imagination

which of these is not a precondition of marxist socialism

the violent overthrow of the ruling class

social darwinist herbert spencer argued that society would only advance if

"do-gooders" did not help the unfit survive

critical sociologist c. wright mills believed that social problems are caused by:

contradictions within our social institutions

the w i thomas theorem argues that

if people define situations as real, then they are real in their consequences

one advantage of using case studies for social research

researcher can study individuals in their natural setting

a disadvantage of using existing data for social research

researcher must use the format provided

the researchers impact on his or her subjects may affect the studys results. this is called

the hawthorne effect

which sociological perspective approaches society from a micro-level?

interactionism

as sociologists, we need to use critical thinking when observing social issues. this means that

we should be willing to ask any question and be open to any answer

if someone bumps into us in a hallway we expect them to say that they are sorry. this is an example of a

folkway

specific expectations about how ppl should behave in a given situation

norms

schools teaching, in addition to their regular curriculum, students to be polite, to respect authority, and to believe in capitalism and the american way of life is an example of

latent function of education

social solidarity based on shared values

mechanical solidarity

making use of the sociological perspective encourages

challenging commonly held beliefs

the theoretical approach in sociology that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the

structural-functional approach

which of the foloowing is an accurate criticism of the structrual-functional approach

it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict

the social-conflict approach draws attention to

patterns of social inequality

for karl marx, the point of studying society was

to reduce inequality

the basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is

the reality people construct as they interact with one another

a criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it

ignores how structural factors such as class affect peoples experiences

it would be correct to say that critical sociology

seeks to bring about desirable social change

among all forms of life, humans stand out as the only species that

relies on culture to ensure survival

sociologists define a symbol as

anythign that carries a meaning to ppl who share a culture

standards by which ppl who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beauti*** are called

values

what are the values central to u.s. culture indentified by robin williams?

equal opportunity, racism and group superiority, and material comfort.

high-income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize

self-expression

compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society is based on

an information-based economy

cultural patterns that are widespread among a societys population are referred to as

popular culture

the concept couterculture referes to

cultural patterns that oppose those that arw wdiely held

ethnocentrism

judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture

which theoretical approach asserts that the stability of the u.s. society rests on core values shared by most people?

the structural-functional approach

a marxist analysis of u.s. culture suggests that our competitive and individualistic values reflect

this nations capitalist economy

culture is a source of human freedom because

cultural creatures must make and remake the world for themselves

which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?

socialization

jean piaget called the level of development at which ppl first use lang and other cultural symbols is what stage?

preoperational stage

the focus of lawrence kohlbergs research was

moral reasoning

george herbert mead placed the origin if the self in

social experience

by taking the role of the other mead had in mind

imagining a situation from another persons point of view

when charles horton cooley used the term looking glass self he was referring to the fact that

people see themselves as they think others see them

mead considered the generalized other to be

widespread cultural norms and values ppl take as their own

family is important to the socialization process because

parents greatly affect a child self-concept, families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion, and femaily is often what mead called significant others

when ppl modeal themselved after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in

anticipatory socialization

sociologists claims the main reason that many young ppl in the u.s. experience adolescence as a time of confusion is

cultural inconsistency in defining this stage of life as partly childlike and partly adultlike

according to erving goffman, the goal of a total institution is

to radically alter a persons personality or behavior

which of the following reflects goffmans decriptopn of the resocialization process?

stripping away an old identity, then building a new identitity.

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