PSY 200 CH. 2-2

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Casey Carlton's PSY 200 at J Sarge Notes 2-2

Techniques for Studying the Brain

Brain Lesioning, EEG, Brain Imaging, Trans cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

EEG

Measures electrical activity in the brain. A drawback is that it's not within the brain, only the outer layer.

Brain Lesioning

Lesion or damage part of the brain and see what abilities the individual loses. (animals)

Types of Brain Imaging

CT Scans, PET Scans, MRI Scans, Functional MRI (fMRI)

CT Scans

X-ray of the brain that provides a 3-D picture showing structure (doesn't show function) (Drawback: radiation exposure)

PET Scans

Trace the glucose consumption in the brain; relates to brain activity (function)

MRI Scans

(Magnetic resonance imaging) generally shows structure. Draw on the magnetic properties in the body. (structure)

Functional MRI (fMRI)

Series of MRI's in rapid succession (function)

Trans cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Creates a virtual lesion deactivating a part of the brain but only temporarily; newer technique, not brain imaging, a safe way to carry out brain liesoning

Hindbrain and Midbrain

The lower parts that are responsible for more life sustaining functions.

Parts of the Brainstem

Medulla, Pons, Reticular Formation

Medulla

Breathing and heart rate (Magic Medallion)

Pons

How alert you are, influences sleep (like a coma);

Reticular Formation

Plays a role in attention to sudden changes (ADD)

Cerebellum

All voluntary movement; coordination (bell; triangular dinner bell)

The Forebrain

The most forward part of the brain and is considered the higher part of the brain and generally responsible to higher functions

Parts of the Limbic System

Amygdala, Hippocampus (important for memory and emotions)

Amygdala

related to experience of our emotions, especially survival emotions (anger, fear, aggression) (Amy; girls have emotions)

Hippocampus

Responsible for the formation of memories (elephants & hippos because they have a good memory)

Thalamus

Part of the brain sensory relay station; sensory (except smell) info goes through here first and then directed to other parts of the brain (operator receiving and directing calls)

Basal Ganglia

Involved in voluntary movements like habitual movements such as walking, typing, writings, etc.

Hypothalamus

Influences hunger, indirectly controls hormones; controls and influences hormones because it controls the pituitary glands (hunger & hormones)

The Cerebral Cortex

What sets humans apart from other animals; the outer layer of the brain; very integrated and always sharing information; divided into 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes

NeoCortex

The outermost part of the cerebral cortex making up 80% of the human brain's cortex

4 Lobes of the Brain

Occipital Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Primarily processes VISUAL information (visual cortex; responsible for the initial processing of visual information) (optical,eye,visual)

Temporal Lobe

Processes LANGUAGES in general and contains the auditory cortex (initial processing of auditory information)

Frontal Lobe

In the front; planning, decision making, responsible for conscious thought

Prefrontal Cortex

Highest mental functions possible

Parietal Lobe

Processes space location; (clapping, moving around) where you are in space. Helps navigate where things are and how to get places; processes touch information

Somatosensory Cortex

Processes information about body sensations

Motor Cortex

Processes information about voluntary movement

Association Areas

Throughout the cerebral cortex; integrates information (recognizes sounds and then deciding what to do)

Corpus Callosum

Thick band of fibers connecting the hemispheres and allows for constant information.

Split Brain Research

Severs the Corpus Callosum (treatment for server epilepsy)

Left Hemisphere

Language, Broca's Area, Wernicke's Area

Broca's Area

Important role in the production of speech (Tan suffered from Aphasia)

Wernicke's Area

Important role in the comprehension of speech.

Right Hemisphere

More involved in spatial perception, emotions, visual recognition

Integration of Function

All parts of the brain are working together simultaneously

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