## Chapter 13 Physical Science Review

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prenner  on April 29, 2008

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# Chapter 13 Physical Science Review

 JouleUnit of measure for work
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#### Definitions

Joule Unit of measure for work
block and tackle system of pulleys that multiplies mechanical advantage
efficiency comparison between the amount of work put in to a machine and the amount of work the machine produces
effort distance the distance you must move to operate a machine
effort force the force you must apply to operate the machine
first class lever a lever in which the fulcrum is between the load and the effort
fluid anything that flows
fulcrum the pivot point on a lever
inclined plane also known as a ramp
lever a board or bar that can be used to lift something
load distance the distance the machine moves the load
load the thing being pushed, pulled, or moved by a machine. Also called the job
machine a mechanical device that helps us do work
mechanical advantage the force a machine applies to an object compared to the force you apply to the machine
power the rate at which work is done
pulley a device that uses a grooved wheel and rope to lift an object
screw an inclined plane wrapped around a cone or cylinder
second class lever the load is between the fulcrum and the effort
third class lever the effort is between the load and the fulcrum
watt unit of measure for power
wedge used to cut things apart or clamp things together
work a force applied over a distance
wheel and axle two circles rigidly attached to each other
load force the force the machine applies to the load (the thing being moved)
simple machine there are six of these; they have helped people do work for many centuries
energy the capacity of a physical system to do work
kinetic energy energy an object has because it is in motion
potential energy energy an object has because of its position
gravitational potential energy energy an object has due to its position above the ground
law of conservation of energy the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

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