Biology Semester II Exam Review

199 terms by capt10

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Cellulose

Component of the cell wall of plants

Leaf

Primary part of the plant used for photosynthesis

Monocot

Parallel leaf venation

Flower

Reproductive part of an anthophyte

Moist environment

Necessary to transport sperm and for diffusion of water and nutrients in nonvascular plants

Sclerenchyma

Type of plant cell with thick, rigid cell walls

Ethylene gas

Hormone which helps ripen fruits

Complete Flower

Contains both stamen (male) and pistil (female) parts

Wind

Seed dispersal mechanism using hairy plumes

Animal fur

Seed dispersal mechanism using hooks and barbs

Netted veins

Dicot leaf has this venation

Phloem

Transports sugars down a plant from the leaves

Phototropism

Plant's response to light

Archegonia

Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant

Annuals

Anthophyte that lives for only one year

Structures of a leaf

Parenchyma cells, stomata, epidermis, veins, guard cells

Conifers

Plant type that has naked seeds

Anthophytes

Flowering plants with enclosed seeds and fruit

Bilateral Symmetry

Symmetry of worms, butterflies and man

One

Number of body segments of a tick

Two

Number of body segments of a spider

Three

Number of body segments of insects

Complete Metamorphosis

Egg, larve, pupa, adult

Incomplete Metamorphosis

Egg, nymph adult

Six

Number of walking legs of insects

Eight

Number of walking legs of spider

Trichina Worms

Undercooked pork may contain

Nematocysts

stinging cells that discharge when tentacles are touched

Jointed appendages

Most distinguishing characteristics of arthropods

Stinging tentacles

Cnidarians capture food with

Molt

Process of shedding exoskeleton while new one grows beneath old one

Gills

Aquatic arthropods breathe using these

Filter feed

Sponges and other sessile organisms feed by what means?

Coral

Group of Cnidarians that provide food, shelter for other organisms

Antennae

Part of insect that senses vibrations, food, and pheremones

Planarian

Flat worm with a pharynx, (muscluar tube for feeding)

Radial

Symmetry of adult sea stars and sea urchins

fish

Vertebrate with a 2- chambered heart

test chemicals in air

Reason snakes flick out their tongues

Feathers

Distinguishing characteristic of birds

Teeth

Mammals are classified by their

Tympanic Membrane

Amphibians organ to sense vibrations from water or air

Placental

Mammal type that fully develops in uterus with umbilical cord

Lamprey and Hagfish

Two fish that lack jaws

Osteichthyes

Class of bony fish

Amphibians

Vertebrate characterized with thin, moist skin

Jacobson's organ

Sense organ on snake's roof of mouth which detects airborne chemicals

Lateral line

Fish sense organ which detects vibrations and movement in the water

Platypus and Echidna

Two examples of egg laying Monotremes

Australia

Most marsupials are located here

Smooth

Muscle type of internal organs

Conserves body heat

Main advantage of hair

smell, sound, touch

Three ways animals communicate

Imprinting

Attachment behavior at a critical time in life

Trial and Error

Behavior where an animal receives a reward

Involuntary

Muscle contractions that are not controlled

Territorial behavior

Type of behavior in which an animal protects his home area

Pheromone

Chemical animal communicates with

circadian rhythm

24-hour cycle of an animal

Pavlov

Biologist who demonstrated conditioning in dogs

Aggression

Animal behavior where they are showing agitation toward another

Cardiac

Heart muscle type

Lichen

Mutual relationship between a fungus and algae

Mycorrhizae

Mutual relationship between fungus and plant roots

Shape

Bacteria is identified by their

Conjugation

Sexual reproduction in bacteria exchanging genetic information

Bacteriophage

Virus that infects bacterial cells

Nonliving

Viruses are classified as

Penicillin

Causes holes in cell walls of bacteria killing them

Dinoflagellates

plant-like protist that causes red tide

sexual spores

Fungus is classified by their

Decomposers

Fungi and bacteria are considered this since they can transform complex molecules into simpler raw materials

Flagellate

Protozoan with a whip-like tail

Cilia

Short hair-like structures on a paramecium

Diatoms

Plant-like Protist made of various shells of silica

Protista

Kingdom of Eukaryotes, multi or unicellular includes algae and protozoans

Protozoan

Animal-like protist

Algae

Plant-like protist

Asexual

Reproduction that produces identical daughter cells as the parent cell. (binary fission and budding)

Aristotle

First to propose a taxonomic system

Scientific Name

Composed of genus and species

Binomial Nomenclature

A two word naming system

Latin

Language used for scientific names

Taxonomy

Science of grouping and naming organisms

Classification

Placing of information or objects into groups based on similarities

Dichotomous Key

step by step approach to identify an organism using a series of paired descriptions

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

7 Levels of Classification in order

Animalia

Kingdom of insects, worms, sponges and elephants

Genus

First word of the scientific name

Plantae

Kingdom of mosses, conifers and flowering plants

Fungi

Kingdom of mushrooms, puffballs and yeast

Archeabacteria and Eubacteria

Two kingdoms of prokaryotic cells

Protista

Kingdom of plant-like (algae) and animal-like (protozoans) organisms

Animalia

Kingdom of all eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organisms

Plantae

Kingdom of all autotrophic and multicellular organisms

Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor

Evolutionary belief of gases in the primitive atmosphere

small pools of amino acids

Starting in the 1950's Evolutionists suggested life came from

Spontaneous Generation

Widely accepted view of life coming from nothing before Biogenesis was accepted

Cenozoic

Evolutionary Era when Human were thought to "evolve"

4.6 Billion Years

Evolutionary time line when earth was supposedly formed

Cyanobacteria

Evolutionary viewpoint on first group of organisms to evolve

Urey and Miller

Scientists who tried to conduct an experiment to prove life came from earth's ancient conditions

Darwin

Founder of modern Evolution theory

Prosimians

Group of lemurs and tarsiers

Homologous Structures

Evolutionary idea that the wing of a bat is common to the arm of a human

Vestigial Organs

The name of the Evolutionary idea that some organs no longer function

Camouflage

The ability an animal has to blend in with it's surroundings

Mimicry

Ability of an animal to look like another more harmful animal

Natural Selection

Evolution idea that nature selects which characteristics will continue in an animal population

Range of Tolerance

Animals ability to withstand environmental fluctuations

Autotrophs

Organisms that can convert light into chemical energy

Ovary

Organ which produces the female egg

Testis

Organ which produces the male sperm

Uterus

Female organ where a fetus develops

Bacteria

Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia are all caused by

Tail, head, mitochondria

Three parts of the male sperm

Alveoli

Small sacs of the lungs where gas exchange takes place

Lymphatic

Body system that helps recover body fluids and returns it to the blood

Invasive species

Species not native to a given area

Cocaine

Drug that causes brain neurotransmitter levels to increase

Cones

Part of the retina that allows you to see color

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

Kidneys

Organs that collect waste from cells and maintains the bodies homeostasis

Sensory neurons

Carries impulses from environment to brain/spinal cord

Motor neurons

Carries impulses from brain/spinal cord to muscles

Puberty

Menstrual cycle begins during the stage

Viruses

Causes genital herpes, warts and AIDS

HIV

Virus that weakens the immune system

Endocrine System

System which produces hormones for the body

Depressant

Type of drug which slows down and reduces nervous system activity

Purple

Color of Gram positive stained bacteria

Pink

Color of Gram negative stained bacteria

Intelligent Design

Theory which suggests all life is complex and best explained by an intelligent cause

Melanin

Pigment that causes various shade of skin color

Antediluvian

Term used to refer to "before the flood"

Yom

Hebrew word used for "day" typically written for describing a 24 hour period

Sin

Biblical understanding of the cause of death, disease, blood shed

2 Timothy 3: 16-17

"All scripture is God breathed, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness..."

Romans 5:12

"by one man sin entered the world, and death by sin..."

Europe

Shem's descendants migrated to this area

Africa

Ham's descendants migrated to this area

Asia

Japheth's descendants migrated to this area

Tower of Babel dispersion

What Biblical event caused smaller population sizes and disrupted genetic equilibrium

.2%

The percent difference of any two people in the world

over hunting and harsh environmental conditions

Possible reasons for dinosaurs being extent

Job

Book of the Bible that contains descriptions of animals similar to dinosaurs

Micro-evolution

Changes in animals that are limited to the species gene pool

Macro-evolution

Changes in animals that require beneficial mutations involving addition of new information into the DNA

Presuppositions

Initial starting belief of a person that determines their viewpoint concerning the origin of life

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