War of the Roses
War between the York and Lancaster houses for control of the English crown. The white rose symbolized the York House and the red rose symbolized the Lancaster House. By 1485, Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Ruchard III of York. Tudor set up a strong monarchy in England.
Hundred Years' War
War between England and France which lasted from 1337-1453. King Edward III (England) claimed the French throne despite France's appointment of Philip VI of Flanders as King. France expelled the English from all French lands except Calais.
Holy Roman Emperor elected in 1273. He began a long line of Hapsburg emperors. His marriage caused the Holy Roman Empire to gain the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Their marriage in 1479 united Aragon and Castille into one Spanish nation. During their reign, they captured Granada from the Moors in 1492, took powers away from the Church courts and Spanish nobility, and forcibly united Spain along a Catholic identity through the inquisition.