Establishment of Yellowstone National Park(3)
By Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. First National Park in the World. Primarily in Wyoming
The oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States. Founded by John Muir in 1892. Created to enjoy and protect the wild places of the Earth.
A conservation law introduced by Iowa Rep. John F. Lacey. Protecting both plants and wildlife by creating civil and criminal penalties for a wide array of violations, the Act most notably prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, transported or sold. Signed by McKinley in the yr 1900 and has been amended.
National Park Service Act(2)
Signed into law on August 25, 1916 by President Woodrow Wilson. First NPS Director Stephen Mather was put in charge of supervising and maintaining all designated national parks, battlefields, historic places, and monuments. To establish a National Park Service, and for other purposes
American ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. Wrote A Sand County Almanac (1949). He emphasized biodiversity and ecology and was a founder of the science of wildlife management.
An American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Wrote Silent Spring. Led a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides—and the grassroots environmental movement the book inspired led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.
Atomic Energy Act(3)
Ruled that nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management would be under civilian, rather than military, control, and established the United States Atomic Energy Commission (1946). It was signed by President Harry Truman on August 1, 1946 and it went into effect on January 1, 1947. One of the provisions of the Act was a strict ban on the release of atomic technology to other powers, even to allies.
Land and Water Conservation Act(2)
Created in 1964 to provide monies and matching grants to federal, state and local governments for the acquisition of land and water, and easements on land and water, for the benefit of all Americans.
An American biologist and educator who is the Bing Professor of Population Studies in the department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University.By training he is an entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies), but he is better known as an ecologist and a demographer, specifically for his warnings about unchecked population growth and limited resources. And he wrote The Population Bomb and famous for the Simon-Ehrlich wager, a bet he made with and lost to economist Julian Simon.
A leading and controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas, who warned of the dangers of overpopulation and whose concept of the tragedy of the commons brought attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment". He was most well known for his elaboration of this theme in his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the Commons. He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Ecology, which states "You cannot do only one thing", and used the familiar phrase "Nice guys finish last" to sum up the "selfish gene" concept of life and evolution.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(3)
CITES, also known as the Washington Convention, is an international agreement between governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The text of the convention was agreed upon in 1973, and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants.
First Earth Day(2)
a day founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970.
Clean Air Act(1)
The Clean Air Act was passed in 1963 and significantly amended in 1970 and 1990. It is listed under the 42 U.S.C. § 7401. The first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 proposed emissions trading, added provisions for addressing acid rain, ozone depletion and toxic air pollution, and established a national permits program.
Environmentalist who founded the Sierra Club Foundation, the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth (1969), the League of Conservation Voters, Earth Island Institute (1982), North Cascades Conservation Council, and Fate of the Earth Conferences. Mountaineer who climbed Ship Rock too.
Marine Mammal Protection Act(1)
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) of 1972 was the first article of legislation to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to natural resource management and conservation. MMPA prohibits the taking of marine mammals, and enacts a moratorium on the import, export, and sale of any marine mammal, along with any marine mammal part or product within the United States. U.S. Congress defines "take" as "the act of hunting, killing, capture, and/or harassment of any marine mammal; or, the attempt at such.
Clean Water Act (1)
Established the goals of eliminating releases to water of high amounts of toxic substances, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983.
Endangered Species Act(1)
The Act of 1973 is one of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s. Signed into law by President Nixon on December 28, 1973, it was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation." Is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Located in Northeast Ohio in the United States, the river is most famous for being "the river that caught fire", helping to spur the environmental movement in the late 1960s. Native Americans called this winding water "Cuyahoga," which means "crooked river" in the Iroquois language. A very Polluted river with oil residues and sludge. On June 22, 1969, an oil slick and debris in the Cuyahoga River caught fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to environmental problems in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States.
Love Canal, NY(2)
The site of the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste that had been buried beneath the neighborhood by Hooker Chemical. Love Canal officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue. Two bodies of water define the northern and southern boundaries of the neighborhood: Bergholtz Creek to the north and the Niagara River one-quarter mile (400 m) to the south. In this area, Grand Island is situated on the south shore of the Niagara River.
Three Mile Island(2)
A partial core meltdown in Unit 2 (a pressurized water reactor manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox) of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania near Harrisburg. It was the most significant accident in the history of the American commercial nuclear power generating industry, resulting in the release of up to 481 PBq (13 million curies) of radioactive gases, but less than 740 GBq (20 curies) of the particularly dangerous iodine-131.
Resources Conservation and Recovery Act(2)
Enacted in 1976, is the principal Federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste. While RCRA handles many regulatory functions of hazardous and non-hazardous waste, arguably its most notable provisions regard the Subtitle C program which tracks the progress of hazardous wastes from their point of generation, their transport, and their treatment and/or disposal.
The common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), a United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances. It created the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and it provides broad federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. The law authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify parties responsible for contamination of sites and compel the parties to clean up the sites. Where responsible parties cannot be found, the Agency is authorized to clean up sites itself, using a special trust fund.
The world's worst industrial catastrophe. It occurred on the night of December 2-3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Chemicals abandoned at the plant continue to leak and pollute the groundwater. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. Whether the chemicals pose a health hazard is disputed.
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant(2)
A decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Prypiat, Ukraine. It was the site of the disaster in 1986, but due to high power demand, continued to operate until December 2000. Workers remain at the site because the remaining three reactors at the plant, although no longer in operation, still contain nuclear fuel which needs to be monitored. The nuclear power plant site is to be cleared by 2065.
On Saturday, April 26, 1986, a disaster occurred at reactor No. 4, which has been widely regarded as the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. As a result, reactor No. 4 was completely destroyed and has since been enclosed in a concrete and lead sarcophagus to prevent further escape of radiation. The population of the nearby areas were evacuated. Large areas of Europe were affected by the accident, but increased radiation exposure outside of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia "are comparable to an annual dose from natural background radiation and are, therefore, of little radiological significance" according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.
An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989. The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing only fluorine do not harm the ozone layer).
aA American biologist, researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), naturalist (conservationist) and author. His biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants.
A two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction. He is known for his career as a scientist, his advocacy for environmentalism, and his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters.
Wrote, On Human Nature and won the Pulitzer Prize (1979) Crafoord Prize (1990) Pulitzer Prize (1991) Kistler Prize (2000) Nierenberg Prize (2001)
This spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989, when the oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled 260,000 to 750,000 barrels (41,000 to 119,000 m3) of crude oil.
It ranks well down on the list of the world's largest oil spills in terms of volume released. However, Prince William Sound's remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane and boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay oil field, eventually covered 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of coastline, and 11,000 square miles (28,000 km2) of ocean. Then Exxon CEO, Lawrence G. Rawl, shaped the company's response.
A protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."
7 industrialized countries (called "Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them, and all member countries give general commitments.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific intergovernmental body tasked with evaluating the risk of climate change caused by human activity. The panel was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. The IPCC shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with former Vice President of the United States Al Gore.
Created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States, and protected some 9 million acres (36,000 km²) of federal land. The result of a long effort to protect federal wilderness, the Wilderness Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964. it created the National Wilderness Preservation System.