McCulloch v. Maryland
Did Congress have the authority to establish the bank? Did the Maryland law unconstitutionally interfere with congressional powers?
Yes and yes. Court said that Congress had the power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of the national government employed in the execution of constitutional powers due to the Necessary and Proper Clause.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Did the State of New York exercise authority in a realm reserved exclusively to Congress, the regulation of interstate commerce?
Yes. Court said that New York's licensing requirement for out-of-state operators was inconsistent with a congressional act regulating the coasting trade. The New York law was invalid by virtue of the Supremacy Clause
Plessy v. Ferguson
Is Louisiana's law mandating racial segregation on its trains unconstitutional and against equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment?
No, the justices based their decision on the separate-but-equal doctrine, that separate facilities for blacks and whites satisfied the Fourteenth Amendment so long as they were equal.
Gitlow v. New York
Does the New York law punishing the advocacy of overthrowing the government an unconstitutional violation of the free speech clause of the First Amendment?
No, because of the "dangerous tendency" test, the legislature may decide that a speech is so dangerous that it should be prohibited.
Korematsu v. United States
Did the President and Congress go beyond their war powers by implementing exclusion and restricting the rights of Japanese Americans?
No, court said that the government's need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsu's rights.
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka
Does the segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race go against equality in 14th amendment?
Yes. Despite the equalization of the schools by "objective" factors, it is still not equal for minority children.
Mapp v. Ohio
May evidence obtained through a search in violation of the Fourth Amendment be admitted in a state criminal proceeding?
No. All evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the Constitution is, by [the Fourth Amendment], inadmissible in a state court.
Engle v. Vitale
Does the reading of a nondenominational prayer at the start of the school day violate the "establishment of religion" clause of the First Amendment?
Yes. Neither the prayer's nondenominational character nor its voluntary character saves it from unconstitutionality.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Did the state court's failure to appoint counsel for Gideon violate his right to a fair trial and due process of law as protected by the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments?
Yes because of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Miranda v. Arizona
Does the police practice of interrogating individuals without notifiying them violate the Fifth Amendment?
Yes. The Court held that prosecutors could not use statements stemming from custodial interrogation of defendants unless they demonstrated the use of procedural safeguards
Tinker v. Des Moines
Does a prohibition against the wearing of armbands in public school, as a form of symbolic protest, violate the First Amendment's freedom of speech protections?
Yes. The wearing of armbands was protected by the first amendment.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Did the Rhode Island and Pennsylvania statutes violate the First Amendment's Establishment Clause by making state financial aid available to "church-related educational institutions"?
Yes.To be constitutional, a statute must have "a secular legislative purpose," it must have principal effects which neither advance nor inhibit religion, and it must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion."
Roe v. Wade
Does the Constitution provide a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy by abortion?
Yes. Her right is protected within the right of privacy.
US v. Nixon
Is the President's right to safeguard certain information, using his "executive privilege" confidentiality power, entirely immune from judicial review?
No because executive privilege is limited.
Regents of California v. Bakke
Did the University of California violate the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, by rejecting Bakke?
Bakke still had to be accepted but it was still okay for universities to use race as a criterion for being admitted.
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Did the principal's deletion of the articles violate the students' rights under the First Amendment?
No. The Court held that the First Amendment did not require schools to affirmatively promote particular types of student speech.
Texas v. Johnson
Is the desecration of an American flag, by burning or otherwise, a form of speech that is protected under the First Amendment?
Yes, The court said that it was protected under the First Amendment.
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey
Can a state require women who want an abortion to obtain informed consent, wait 24 hours, and, if minors, obtain parental consent, without violating their right to abortions as guaranteed by Roe v. Wade?
A state can require women to do that unless it is an obstacle to the woman to get an abortion.
US v. Lopez
Is the 1990 Gun-Free School Zones Act unconstitutional because it exceeds the power of Congress to legislate under the Commerce Clause?
Yes. The possession of a gun in a local school zone is not an economic activity.
Clinton v. New York
Did the President's ability to selectively cancel individual portions of bills, under the Line Item Veto Act, violate the Presentment Clause of Article I?
Yes, court first established that both the City of New York and the farmers' cooperative suffered sufficiently immediate and concrete injuries to sustain their standing to challenge the President's actions