The Eleven Principal Systems of the Human Body

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Introduction to the Human Anatomy: The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J. Tortora and Bryan Derrickson Chapter 1: Organization of the Human Body, Table 1.1 Components and Functions of the Eleven Principal Systems of the Human Body

Integumentary system components

Skin and structures derived from it, such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands

Skeletal system components

All the bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages

Muscular system components

Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue, which is muscle usually attached to bones (other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac).

Integumentary system functions

Helps regulate body temperature; protects the body; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pressure, warmth, and cold

Skeletal system functions

Supports and protects the body, provides a specific area for muscle attachment, assists with body movements, stores cells that produce blood cells, and stores minerals and lipids (fats)

Muscular system functions

Participates in bringing about body movements, maintains posture, and produces heat

Nervous system components

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs such as the eyes and ears

Nervous system functions

Regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes in the environment, interpreting the changes, and responding to the changes by bringing about muscular contractions or glandular secretions

Endocrine system components

All glands and tissues that produce chemical regulators of body functions called hormones

Endocrine system functions

Regulates body activities through hormones transported by the blood to various target organs

Cardiovascular system components

Blood, heart, and blood vessels

Cardiovascular system functions

Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, and helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels

Lymphatic system and immunity components

Lymphatic fluid and vessels; spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses (B cells, T cells, and others).

Lymphatic system and immunity functions

Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes

Respiratory system components

Lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (wind pipe), and bronchial tubes leading into and out of them

Respiratory system functions

Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acidity of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sound

Digestive system components

Organs of gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus; also includes accessory digestive organs that assist in digestive processes, such as salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Digestive system functions

Achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes

Urinary system components

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

Urinary system functions

Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps regulate acidity of bodily fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate red blood cell production

Reproductive system components

Gonads (testes or ovaries) and associated organs: uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females, and epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and penis in males. Also, mammary glands in females.

Reproductive system functions

Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism and release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes. Mammary glands produce milk.

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