saying something irrelevant in an argument
ad hominem attack
attacking the person and not the argument.
condemning an argument because of where it began, how it began, or who began it.
dismissing someone view point on an issue because he himself is in inconsistent in the same thing
faulty appeal to authority
An appeal to someone who has no special knowledge in the area being discussed.
appeal to the people
Claiming our viewpoint is correct because many other people agree with it.
changing or exaggerating an opponent's view point
P is true because Q is true and Q is true because P is true
changing the meaning of a word in the middle of an argument
arguer asks a question that contains an unfair or unwarranted assumption
part to whole
When someone tries to say that what is true of part of something must also be true of the whole thing together
whole to part
When someone tries to say that what is true of something as a whole, must also be true of each of its parts.
when someone asserts that we must choose between two things when in fact we have more than two alternatives
a group of people or things which all have some common or characteristic or characteristics
when you examine one or more of the people or things in a class
the process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances
the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population
a comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
post hoc ergo propter hoc
assuming that an incident that precedes another is the cause of the second incident
a strategy for spreading ideas or beliefs
when someone plays with our emotions in a way designed to make us agree with them without thinking through the matter carefully
appeal to fear
when someone makes you fear the consequences of not doing what he wants
appeal to pity
the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy
tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or everyone is doing it
nothing more than a time limit is given as a reason for you to do what someone wants
repeating a message loudly and very often in the hope that it will soon be believed.
a propaganda technique in which someone tries to make us transfer our good or bad feelings about one thing to another unrelated thing
exploits a person's need for status or desire to feel special