A & P Exam #2

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Ellipsoid Joints

The joints that connect the four fingers with the metacarpal bones

Covered by Perichondrium

Which of these is not a property of articular cartilage

Shoulder

Which of the following joints is an example of a ball and socket joint

Thyroid Hormone

Elevates the rate of energy consumption in resting and active skeletal muscles

Testosterone

Primary sex hormone in males

Epinephrine

Stimulates muscle metabolism and increases duration and stimulation of the force of a contraction

Myoglobin

Red pigment in slow fibers

Calmodulin

Activates myosin light chain kinase

Gliding

Which type of joint is found between the carpal bones

Increases osmotic pressure within joint

Which of the following is not a function of synovial fliud

Glenohumeral

The shoulder joint, or _______ joints, permits the greatest range of motion of any joint

Flexion of the forearm

Contraction of the muscle that is attached to the radial tuberosity results in

Bursa

Small pockets of synovial fluid that reduce friction and act as a shock absorber where ligaments and tendons rub against other tissues

Arthritis

A general term for pain and stiffness that affects the skeletal or muscular system

Elevation

Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing foods

Reinforce the joint capsule & limit range of movements

The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder functions to

Gliding Joint

Sacroillic Joint

Pivot Joint

Proximal Radioulnar Joint

Hinge Joint

Ankle Joint

Ellipsoid Joint

Radiocarpal Joint

Inversion

A common injury to the ankle occurs by excessive turning of the sole inward

White-water kayakers & Baseball Pitchers

Which of the following atheletes are at greatest risk of developing a rotator cuff injury

Flexion & Extension

Normal movement of the hip joint during walking

Buccinator

Compresses cheeks

Risorius

Draws corner of the mouth to the side

Nasalis

Elevates corners of the nostrils

Platysma

Tenses skin of the neck

Occipitofrontalis

Raises eyebrows

Hyaline Cartilage

What type of tissue occurs at articular cartilage

Meniscus

Which structure acts as a cushion and consists of fibrocartilage

Genioglossus

Depresses and protracts tongue

Hyoglossus

Depresses and retracts tongue

Palatoglossus

Elevates the tongue

Styloglossus

Retracts tongue and elevates side

Articulation

The location where 2 bones meet; also called a joint

Moving the hand toward the shoulder

Which of the following movements is a good example of flexion

Bony, synovial, fibrous, cartilaginous

Joints can be classified as:

Tibial Collateral

The medial surface of the knee joint is reinforced by the ______ ligament

Act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces

In the knee joint, the medial and lateral menisci

Dorsiflexion

Lifting a stone with the tip of the foot

Sacroilliac

The coxal bones articulate with the sacrum at the ________ joint

Twitch

A product of a single contraction-relation cycle in a muscle fiber

The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint

All of the following statements are true, except:

Triad

The complex of a transverse tubule and 2 adjacent terminal cisternae is known as

Hyperextension

An extension past the anatomical position

Dorsiflexion

All of the following movements occur at the inter-vertebral joints, except

Bursa

Small flud filled pockets in connective tissue

Syndesmosis

A ligamentous connection such as an interosseus ligament

Cruciate

The ligaments that limit the anterior-posterior movement of the femur and maintain the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles are the _____ ligaments

Plantar Flexion

Which foot movement enables the ballerina to stand on her toes

Extreme bending of the head backwads

Which of the following movements is a good example of hyperextension

Flexes

Curling into the "fetal position" _____ the intervertebral joints

Turning the hand palm upward

Which of the following is a good example of supination

Opposition

To pinch with a thumb and finger involves a movement called

Lever

A rigid structure that moves on a fixed point

Synarthrosis

A suture is an example of

Eversion

A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole of the foot outward

Synarthrosis

Immovable joint

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly movable joint

Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint

Pivot

Which of the following types of joints is monoaxial, but capable of only rotation

Fasicles

Muscle fibers in skeletal muscle form bundles called

Gomphosis

The synarthrosis that binds the teeth to the bony sockets

Aponeurosis

Broad tendinous sheet

Gliding

The intercarpal articulations are ______ joints

Medial meniscus

The most common athletic knee injury produces damage to the:

Humero-ulnar Joint

The largest and strongest articulation at the elbow

Ellipsoid

The radiocarpal joint is an

Shoulder

The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the

Hyperextension

Extending a body part past the anatomical position

Dislocation

Occurs when articulating surfaces are forced out of position

Popliteal

Back of the knee joint is reinforced by _____ ligaments

Flexion & Extension

Nodding your head "yes" is an example of

Raphe

In a convergent muscle, fascicles converage on a common attachment site that may be a slender band of collagen fibers known as

Patellar

The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the _____ ligament

Amphiarthrosis

Structurally, the pubic symphysis is classified as an _______ articulation

Opening the mouth

Which of the following movements is a good example of depression

It is composed of hyaline cartilage

Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage

Syndesmosis

An epiphyseal line is an example of

Adduction

The movement of rotating a limb toward the anterior surface of the body

Saddle

The joint between the trapezium and metacarpal bone of the thumb is an example of an _____ joint

Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body

Anterior cruciate ligament

Which of the following ligaments is not associated with the hip joint

Myosatellite cells

Stem cells located between the endomysium and sarcolemma that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue

Rheumatoid arthritis

The primary sign of _____ is synovitis, swelling and inflammation of the synovial membrane

Guard the body entrances and exits, produce movement, maintain body temperature, maintain posture

Which of the following is a recognized function of the skeletal muscle

Synchondrosis, Synostosis, Gomphosis, Suture

Which of this is one of the four major types of synarthrotic joints

Articular

Arthritis always involves damage to the ____ cartilages, but the specific cause can vary

The knee contains 7 major ligaments

Complete dislocation of the knee is rare because

Strain

A tear in the muscle

First Class Lever

Extension of the neck

Second Class lever

Plantar Flexion

Third Class lever

Elbow flexion

Fibrous Cartilage

Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to

Amphiarthrosis

A slightly movable joint

7

The knee joint is stabilized by how many ligaments

Movement can occur in all three axes

Triaxial articulation

Foot

The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantar flexion involve moving the

Diarthrosis

A freely movable joint

Gliding

The joints between vertebrae are examples of _____ joints

Olecranon process

Muscles that extend the elbow attach to the

Inside the joint cavity

Dislocations are quite painful due to stimulation of pain receptors. One place these receptors are absent is

Hinge

The ankle joint is an example of _____ joint

Hinge

Monaxial joints are known as _____ joints

Depression

The movement of a body part downward

Rolling

All of the following are structural classifications of synovial joints, except

Coracoacromial & Coracoclavicular

Which of the following ligaments assist in stabilization of the shoulder joint

Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus

A herniated intervertebral disc is caused by

Around blood vessels

Bursae are found in all of the following areas, except

Synovial Membrane

Which of these is not considered to be an accessory synovial structure

Slick & Smooth

The surface of articular cartilage

Synarthrosis

An immovable joint

Hinge

The elbow joint

Tetanus

An infection by the bacterium clostridium tetani can cause the disease called

Gomphosis

dense connective tissue is to a suture as a periodontal ligament is to a(n)

Spreading the fingers

Which of the following movements is a good example of abduction

Acromioclavicular

Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion

Stylohyoid

Elevates larynx

Thyrohyoid

Elevates thyroid cartilage

Mylohyoid

Elevates floor of mouth

Digastric

Depresses mandible

The ulna and humerus interlock

The elbow joint is extremely stable because

Diarthrosis

A synovial joint is an example of an

Fat pads

Usually found outside the capsule, _______ protect the articular cartilages and act as packing material for the joint

Lateral Rotation

The movement of rotating a limb outward

Protract

Grasping your upper lip with your lower teeth

Upward

The movement of the body upward

Lined by secretory epithelium

Which of the following is not a property of synovial joints

Diarthrosis

A synovial joint is an example of

sacromorous

The tension that can be produced by a skeletal muscle is related to the resting length of its ______

Fat pads

The structures that assist the bursae in reducing friction between the patella and other tissues are the

Strong muscular padding, almost complete bony socket, supporting ligaments, tough capsule

Factors that increase the stability of the hip joint include

Ball & socket/Diarthrosis

The hip joint can also be referred to as the _______ joint

Parallel muscle

Biceps brachii muscle

Convergent muscle

Pectoralis muscle

Circular Muscle

Obicularis oris muscle

Unipennate muscle

Extensor digitroum muscle

Skeletal muscle

Surrounded by epimysium and contains muscle fascicles

Myofibril

Surrounded by sacroplasmic reticulum and consists of sarcomeres

Muscle fascicle

Surrounded by perimysium and contains muscle fibers

Muscle fiber

Surrounded by endomysium and contains myofibrils

Sarcomere

Contains thick and thin filaments

Bunion

Tender nodule formed around bursae over the base of the great toe

Origin

The end of a muscle that remains stationary when the muscle contracts

Glenoid labrium

The glenoid fossa is rimmed by the ______

Neuromuscular functions

Communication between axons and muscle fibers occurs at specialized synapses

Diaphragmatic hernia

A portion of the stomach is forced into pleural cavity

Incersion point

The end of a muscle that is attached to the point that moves when the muscle contracts

Meniscus

______ subdivide synovial cabities, channel the flow of synovial fliud, and allow for variations in the shapes of the articular surfaces

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