An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
American Federation of Labor
The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886.
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Turner (Frontier) Thesis
Theory put forth by Frederick Turner that stated the frontier was the source of American vitality and exceptionalism.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
A renound American philosopher and pscologist who, along with William James, established the philosophical school of pragmatism
German American cartoonist, considered the father of political cartoons. Worked for Harper's Weekly.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Munn V. Illinois
United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
Architect who created the modern "skyscraper"
Governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897, improved child labor and workplace safety laws
Political economist, writer of "Progress and Poverty", he was the main supporter of a single tax system
Gave blacks citizenship
Gave blacks the vote
Helen Hunt Jackson
Writer of "Ramona" and "A Century of Dishonor" detailing America's dealings with and double crossing of Indians
Alfred (Thayer) Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
Expanding product line into similar areas
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice
Author of "Looking Backward" a novel set in the year 2000 (in which all of societies problems had been solved)
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture
Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey. Marched on Washington in 1894.
Credit Moblier Scandal
1872 - Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock
Battle at Wounded Knee
Last major conflict between the Sioux Indians and the United States. 300 Indian men, women and children were killed, while 25 American soldiers died in the conflict.
Plessy V Ferguson
Supreme Court ruling upholding the legality of "separate but equal"
Hungarian-American publisher/newspaperman who waged a circulation war with William Randolph Hearst and helped start "yellow journalism."
Crop Lien System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
Landscape Architect who designed many public parks including Central Park in New York.
Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
System of farming in which people (mostly blacks) would farm the land for an owner - very similar to slavery
Settlement House Movement
Creation of places that offered social services to urban poor - often food, shelter, and basic higher education - Hull House was most famous
William Jennings Bryan
Principle figure in Populist Party - served as Sec. of State under Wilson (resigned in protest of WWI) - prosecutor in the Scopes Trial
Battle of Little Bighorn
1876 - Sioux refused to sell their land to the government - Col. Custer was sent in to remove them but was wiped out
Developed by William James - A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Cattle drives to the North (Chicago and St. Louis)
Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 - built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads - marketed US governemnt securities on large scale
Chief of the Naz Perce Indians - 1871 led unsuccessful rebellion against Whites taking Indian land - tried to flee with his followers to Canada
Immigrants of Italian, Slavic, Greek, Jewish, and Armenian descent - South and East Europeans
Weastern and Eastern Europeans (English, Irish, German, etc)
Bread and Butter Unionism
1880s - Also known as Business Unionism - solely focused on wages, hours, and working conditions (not Socal problems)
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
When a nation uses threats or actual actions against a country to protect its own interests
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
End of 1800s - started at Fort Laramie in Wyoming when Indians killed 19 US soldiers in the Grattan Massacre
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization
Worker rally in Chicago at which a bomb was detonated killing policemen - workers were immigrants so incident led to anti-immigration feelings
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Waving the bloody shirt
Practice of politicians referencing to martyrs or heroes to inspire support or go against
Nickname for Alaska
Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC
Forty Acres and a mule
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S
Built a steel mill empire
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
Knights of Labor
1869 - established in Philidalphia - suppose to be a secrete faternal order - first union to allow all laborers
"A Century of Dishonor"
Book published by Helen Hunt Jackson - dicussed the intolerable acts committed against the Indians
The Gospel of Wealth
Book published by Andrew Carnegie - argued the wealthy people have the obligation to give back to poor
Term for sensationalized journalism - started the Spanish-American War
Argument that poor people are poor because they are not fit to be right
A monopoly that controls the entire process of creating a product
1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War
1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers
Jim Crow Laws
Laws in the South that descriminated against blacks
When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Secretary of State during Civil War and Reconstruction
1870s - farm movement meant to offset the high costs, debts, and little profits of farmers - established cooperative efforts like grain elevators
Young Men's Christian Association
1851 - world wide movement to putting Christian principles into practice (started in London)
expansive, mostly unimproved lands on which a significant proportion of the natural vegetation is native grasses - found in the Great Planes
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
Crime of '73
1873 - law that stopped the coinage of silver
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
Specified when the US could interviene in Cuban affairs
John D. Rockefeller
American businessman - founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)