AP US Vocab 1865-1900

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only missing one or two VERY basic terms - beware there are some spelling mistakes but that does not mean the information is bad!!

Molly Maguires

An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence

American Federation of Labor

The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886.

Booker T. Washington

Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.

Dawes Act

An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.

Turner (Frontier) Thesis

Theory put forth by Frederick Turner that stated the frontier was the source of American vitality and exceptionalism.

William Randolph Hearst

A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."

Granger Laws

A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.

John Dewey

A renound American philosopher and pscologist who, along with William James, established the philosophical school of pragmatism

(Thomas) Nast

German American cartoonist, considered the father of political cartoons. Worked for Harper's Weekly.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)

Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.

Munn V. Illinois

United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads

Louis Sullivan

Architect who created the modern "skyscraper"

(John) Altgeld

Governor of Illinois from 1893 to 1897, improved child labor and workplace safety laws

Henry George

Political economist, writer of "Progress and Poverty", he was the main supporter of a single tax system

13th Amendment

Abolished slavery

14th Amendment

Gave blacks citizenship

15th Amendment

Gave blacks the vote

Helen Hunt Jackson

Writer of "Ramona" and "A Century of Dishonor" detailing America's dealings with and double crossing of Indians

Alfred (Thayer) Mahan

Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy

Horizontal Intergration

Expanding product line into similar areas

Compromise of 1877

Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.

Atlanta Compromise

Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

(Edward) Bellamy

Author of "Looking Backward" a novel set in the year 2000 (in which all of societies problems had been solved)

Chatauqua Movement

American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture

Coxey's Army

Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey. Marched on Washington in 1894.

Credit Moblier Scandal

1872 - Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock

Battle at Wounded Knee

Last major conflict between the Sioux Indians and the United States. 300 Indian men, women and children were killed, while 25 American soldiers died in the conflict.

Plessy V Ferguson

Supreme Court ruling upholding the legality of "separate but equal"

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian-American publisher/newspaperman who waged a circulation war with William Randolph Hearst and helped start "yellow journalism."

Crop Lien System

System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.

Frederick Olmstead

Landscape Architect who designed many public parks including Central Park in New York.

Populist Party

Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers

Sharecropping

System of farming in which people (mostly blacks) would farm the land for an owner - very similar to slavery

Settlement House Movement

Creation of places that offered social services to urban poor - often food, shelter, and basic higher education - Hull House was most famous

William Jennings Bryan

Principle figure in Populist Party - served as Sec. of State under Wilson (resigned in protest of WWI) - prosecutor in the Scopes Trial

Battle of Little Bighorn

1876 - Sioux refused to sell their land to the government - Col. Custer was sent in to remove them but was wiped out

Pragmatism

Developed by William James - A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

Long Drives

Cattle drives to the North (Chicago and St. Louis)

J.P. Morgan

Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 - built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads - marketed US governemnt securities on large scale

Chief Joseph

Chief of the Naz Perce Indians - 1871 led unsuccessful rebellion against Whites taking Indian land - tried to flee with his followers to Canada

New Immigrants

Immigrants of Italian, Slavic, Greek, Jewish, and Armenian descent - South and East Europeans

Old Immigrants

Weastern and Eastern Europeans (English, Irish, German, etc)

Bread and Butter Unionism

1880s - Also known as Business Unionism - solely focused on wages, hours, and working conditions (not Socal problems)

Spanish-American War

1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

Social Gospel

Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization

Jingoism

When a nation uses threats or actual actions against a country to protect its own interests

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Sioux Wars

End of 1800s - started at Fort Laramie in Wyoming when Indians killed 19 US soldiers in the Grattan Massacre

Gilded Age

Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization

Haymarket Incident

Worker rally in Chicago at which a bomb was detonated killing policemen - workers were immigrants so incident led to anti-immigration feelings

Scalawags

A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners

Waving the bloody shirt

Practice of politicians referencing to martyrs or heroes to inspire support or go against

Seward's Folly

Nickname for Alaska

Boss Tweed

Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC

Forty Acres and a mule

failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S

Andrew Carnegie

Built a steel mill empire

Teller Amendment

April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.

Radical Reconstruction

Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war

Knights of Labor

1869 - established in Philidalphia - suppose to be a secrete faternal order - first union to allow all laborers

"A Century of Dishonor"

Book published by Helen Hunt Jackson - dicussed the intolerable acts committed against the Indians

The Gospel of Wealth

Book published by Andrew Carnegie - argued the wealthy people have the obligation to give back to poor

Yellow Journalism

Term for sensationalized journalism - started the Spanish-American War

Social Darwinism

Argument that poor people are poor because they are not fit to be right

Vertical Integration

A monopoly that controls the entire process of creating a product

Boxer Rebellion

1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners

Samuel Gompers

President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.

Civil Rights Act of 1866

Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War

Farmer's Alliance

1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers

Jim Crow Laws

Laws in the South that descriminated against blacks

Redemption (redeemers)

When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction

Bland-Allison Act

1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.

(Edwin) Stanton

Secretary of State during Civil War and Reconstruction

the Grange

1870s - farm movement meant to offset the high costs, debts, and little profits of farmers - established cooperative efforts like grain elevators

Young Men's Christian Association

1851 - world wide movement to putting Christian principles into practice (started in London)

Open Range

expansive, mostly unimproved lands on which a significant proportion of the natural vegetation is native grasses - found in the Great Planes

Pullman Strike

1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery

Injunction

A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.

Crime of '73

1873 - law that stopped the coinage of silver

Horatio Alger

Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys

Platt Amendment

Specified when the US could interviene in Cuban affairs

John D. Rockefeller

American businessman - founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)

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