Principles of Drug Action and Drug Interactions

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43 terms

Receptors

drugs form chemical bonds with specific sites, this bond forms only if the drug and its receptor have similar shape....lock and key idea...

Pharmacodynamics

The study of interactions between drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in a pharmacologic response.

Agonists

drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response

Antagonists

drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response

Partial Agonists

drugs that interact w/ a receptor to stimulate a response BUT, inhibit other responses

ADME

Administered drugs that go through 4 stages: absorbtion, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion

Pharmacokinetics

the study of the matematical relationships among how drugs are introduced into the body and then absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted out of the body

Enteral

Given through the gastrointestinal system (G.I Tract) by oral, rectal, or nasogastric route include powder,pills tablets, liquids, and suppositories

Parental

fluids or medications are given by injection,(IV), intramuscular(IM), and subcutaneous (subcut)

Liberation

When a drug is released from its drug form and dissolved in body fluids before it can be absorbed.

Percutaneous

A method of drug administration that includes inhalation, sublingual (under the tongue), or topical (on the skin) administration.

Absorption

Process whereby a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to the circulating fluids of the body (i.e. blood and lymph) for distrubution around the body.

Distribution

Refers to the ways in which drugs are transported throughout the body by the circulating of body fluids to the sites of action (receptors), metabolism, and excretion

Drug Blood Level

An equilibrium is established between the respository site ( lipid tissue) and circulation so as it drops as a result of binding at the sites of physiologic activity, metabolism,or excretion, more drug is released from the lipid tissue

Metabolism (biotransformation)

The process in which the body inactivates drugs

Excretion

Elimination of med from the body through respiration, perspiration, urination, or defecation, elimination of the drug...2 primary routes...GI tract to the feces & thru the renal tubules into the Urine....other routes can be evaporation thru the skin, exhalation, secretion to saliva and breast milk

half-life

Defined as the amount of time required for 50% of the drug to be eliminated fr. the body

Pharmacodynamics

The study of interactions between drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in a pharmacologic response.

Onset of Action

when the concentration of a drug at the site of action is sufficient enough to start a physiologic response

Peak Action

this is the time when the drug reaches its highest concentration at the receptor site, inc. the maximal pharmacologic response for the dose given

Duration of Action

the length of time a drug has a pharmacological effect.

Desired Action

The expected response that occurs when a drug enters a patient and is absorbed and distributed.

adverse effects/side effects

Unintended and usually undesired effects that may occur with the drug

Toxicity

harmful effects of a drug

Parameters

therapeutic actions to expect, side effects to expect , adverse effects to REPORT, & possible drug interactions

Idiosyncractic Reaction

Occurs when something unusual or abnormal happens when the drug is 1st administred

Allergic Reactions

a/k/a hypersensitivity reactions, occur in about 6% to 10% of patients taking medications which occurs in patients who have previously been exposed to a drug and have developed antibodies to it from their immune systems. On reexposure, the antibodies cause a reaction.

Urticaria

also hives; an acute allergic reaction in which round wheals (welts) develop on the skin, usually accompanied by intense itching

Carcinogenicity

is the ability of the drug to induce living cells to mutate & become cancerous

Placebo Effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

Nocebo Effect

Latin, "I will harm." The effect that occurs when the patient's negative expectations about therapy result in less than optimal outcomes.

Placebo

A physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will.

Tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

Drug Dependence

characterized by habituation to, abuse of, and/or addiction to a chemical substance mostly due to psychological craving for the substance

Drug Accumulation

accumulation in the body may occur if the next dose is admin. before the previously admin. dose has been metabolized or excreted

Unbound Drug

portion of the drug that is pharmacologically active that provides a physiologic effect

Drug Interaction

is said to occur when the action of one drug is altered by the action of another drug. Are elicited in two ways 1. agents that when combined increase the actions of one or both drugs and 2. agents that when combined, decrease the effectiveness of one or both of the drugs. Usually affet the binding of a drug to an inactive site, such as circulating plasma albumin or muscle protein

Additive Effect

A drug interaction that occurs when two drugs with similar actions are taken, thus doubling the effect.

Synergistic Effect

when two drugs are administered together and interact in such a way that their combined effects are greater that the sum of the effects for each drug given alone

Antagonistic Effect

One drug interferes w the action of another

Displacement

The displacement of the first drug from protein-binding sites ( bound drugs are inactive) by a 2nd drug increases the activity of the 1st drug b/c more unbound drug is available.

Interference

The 1st drug inhibits the metabolism or excretion of the 2nd drug, causing increased activity of the 2nd drug.

Incompatibilty

The 1st drug is chemically incompatible with the 2nd drug, causing deterioration when both drugs are mixed in the same syringe or solution

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