ad hominem arguement
Latin for "to or against the man." An arguement that appeals to emotion rather than reason; to feeling rather than interest
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, or mythical. A work may be simultaneously use multiple layers of allusions.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An analogy can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with something more familiar.
Repetition of the inital word in several successive clauses.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
A concept that is directly opposed to a previously presented idea; a rhetorical contrast. (Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas.)
A tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion; a maxim.
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity.
A pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by reason and logic, and asserts a position, belief, or conclusion.
The deliberate omission of conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses (suggests a sense of haste).
The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described. Frequently, atmosphere foreshadows events.
A pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by its analysis of why something happens, in contrast to process, which describes how something happens.
A figure of speech in which there is a repetition of ideas in inverted order.
A pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by division, which is the process of breaking a whole into parts, and classification, which is the often subsequent process of sorting individual items into categories
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. A main, or independent, clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate, or dependent, clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by a main clause.
The use of slang or infomallities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give a work a conversational, familiar tone. Colloquial expressions in writing include local or regional dialects.
A pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by, in its narrowest sense, how two or more things are similar (compare) and/or how two or more things are different (contrast).
A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions.
A sentence with two or more principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar subjects.
The act of making equal in a compound sentence.
The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. Connotations may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.
Reasoning in which a conculsion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case.
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
The writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.
From the Greek, didactic literally means "teaching." Didactic works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing , especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
The omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically unnecessary but can be deduced from the context.
A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. The euphemism may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness, or to add humor or ironic understatement.
The persuasive appeal of one's character, or credibility.
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry a literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
figure of speech
A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things.
This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre.
This term literally means "sermon," by more formally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
Te sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions.
A suggestion an author or speaker makes (implies) without stating it directly.
Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.
To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.
The contrast between what is stated explicily and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. The three types of irony are verbal, situational, and dramatic.
Placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast.
A type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite.
Appeal to reason or logic.
loose sentence (cumulative)
A type of sentence in which the main clause is followed by subodinate clauses or phrases that supply additional detail.
A figure of speech that replaces the name of something with a word or phrase closely associated with it.
This term has two distinct technical meanings in English writing. Grammatical mood deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude, such as indicative, subjective, or imperative moods. Literary mood refers to prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.
An inference that does not follow logically from the premises; literally, "does not follow."
Refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. Parallel construction acts as an organizing force to attract the reader's attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply to provide a musical rhythm.
A word that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
The quality of a literary work or passage which appeals to the reader's or viewer's emotions - especially pity, compassion, and sympathy.
A speical type of personification in which inanimate aspects of nature, such as the landscape or the weather, are represented as having human qualities or feelings.
An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end, usually preceded by subordinate clauses or phrases.
The presence of more conjunctions than normal.
One type of subject complement - an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb. It is the predicate of the sentence and modifies the subject.
A second type of subject complement - a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject. It, like the predicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence.
process (process analysis)
A pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by its explanation of how to do something or how something occurs. It presents a sequence of steps and shows how those steps lead to a particular result.
Describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
This term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing.
A question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed.
Involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something.
A work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule.
in writing, a movement from one thought or idea or tone to another; a chance.
Non-standard grammatical useage; a violation of grammatical rules.
stream of conciousness
A technique characterized by the continuous unedited flow of consious experience through the min recorded on paper.
A. An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in belnding diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices.
B. Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors.
The word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linkin verb and complements, or completes, the subject of the sentence either by (1) renaming it [predicate nominative], or (2) describing it [predicate adjective].
This word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases or modifiers), but unlike the independent (or main) clause, tje subordinate clause cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought.
The art of placing in, or occupying, a less equal position in a sentence.
A deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises - the first called "major" and the second "minor" - that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. Conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid.
A figure of speech where one part represents the entire object; or vice versa.
The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both.
A word or phrase that links different ideas. Transitions effectively signal a shift from one idea to another.
The use of a single word to refer to or describe two different words in a sentence resulting in two different meanings.