The minimum number of toilet fixtures required for an interior design remodeling is determined by occupant load and
A.) accessibility requirements
B.) building type
C.) occupancy group
D.) square footage
C is correct. The International Plumbing Code and similar model codes base toilet fixture requirements on the basic unit or occupancy of the building.
Which test gives the most accurate evaluation of the safety of a partition system?
A.) ASTM E84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
B.) Steiner tunnel test
C.) room corner test
D.) ASTM E119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials
D is correct. ASTM E119 tests the entire assembly, not just the finish materials like ASTM E84 (also known as the Steiner tunnel test). The ASTM E119 test is best at evaluating any barrier, like a partition, that is intended to prevent the spread of fire.
A designer is planning a library in which tall bookshelves will be used. If the project is located in a city that has adopted the International Building Code, where would the designer look to find requirements on the minimum allowable space between the top of the shelving and the sprinkler heads in the ceiling?
B.) International Mechanical Code
C is correct. The International Building Code refers to NFPA13 in detailing the requirements of sprinkler system design and installation. The other model codes refer to NFPA13 as well.
Where are the flame-spread ratings in a building most restrictive?
A.) in exit enclosures
B.) on corridor floors
C.) in access ways to exits
D.) in enclosed spaces
A is correct. Refer to Table 27.3, which indicates that the most restrictive requirements for finish materials are in enclosed vertical exitway enclosures.
Exit access corridors in nonsprinklered buildings must have a rating of
A.) 30 minutes
B.) 45 minutes
C.) 1 hour
D.) 2 hours
C is correct. According to the IBC, exit access corridors must have a 1-hour rating.
When selecting interior partitions finishes to meet flame-spread standards, the most important considerations are
A.) the occupancy group, and the location in the building where the finishes will be used
B.) whether or not the building has an automatic sprinkler system, and the construction type
C.) whether or not the partition is a fire barrier, and the ratings of assemblies in the partition
D.) the hourly rating of the partition on which the finish will be installed, and the construction type
A is correct. As indicated in Table 27.3, building codes limit flammability of finishes based on the occupancy of the building and whether the finishes are in an exit or not. A sprinkler system may allow a reduction in one flame-spread class rating but is not the overriding variable. Flame-spread requirements are also independent of the rating of the assembly on which the finishes are placed.
The majority of building codes in the United States are established by
A.) federal laws
B.) model code writing agencies
C.) state governments
D.) local governments
D is correct. Any rights not specifically reserved for the federal government by the United States Constitution revert to individual states. The states, in turn, can delegate control of construction to local jurisdictions. Only a few states have a state building code. In nearly all cases, the local or state code is based on the IBC or one of the model codes.
ASTM is an example of
A.) a model code group
B.) an industry standard-writing organization
C.) a testing laboratory
D.) a federal code writing agency
B is correct. ASTM is the American Society for Testing and Materials an dis one of the organizations that establish a wide variety of standards covering testing methods, products, definitions, and more. Although its committees develop test methods, it is not a testing labroratory.
In starting a design project in a multi-use building, what information would an interior designer need to determine?
I. construction type
II. adjacent occupancies
III. sprinkler condition
IV. fire zone classification
V. accessibility requirements
(A) I, II, and III
(B) I, IV, and V
(C) II, III, and IV
(D) II, IV, and V
A is correct. This question implies that the design process cannot proceed without some basic data that the interior designer might not otherwise have about a building. The most important pieces of information are construction type, adjacent occupancies, and sprinkler condition. Construction type could affect the maximum area of the client's proposed use and how the designer would have to detail shaft walls and structural enclosures. Adjacent occupany groups would affect what rating the designer felt would be needed between the client's space and the exisitng spaces.
Knowing whether or not a building was fully sprinklered would affect maximum allowable area, finishes and other design and detailing decisions. Fire-zone classifications are generally irrevlevant for interior design work. Accessibility requirements are necessary, but the requirements themselves do not relate to the builiding.
In order to specify an acceptable type of wall covering, which of the following tests should the designer require that the wall covering pass?
A.) methenamine pill test
B.) smoke density chamber test
C.) Steiner tunnel test
D.) vertical ignition test
C is correct. The Steiner tunnel test (ASTM E84) is used to measure the flammability of wall finishes and is the test most often often required in building codes. The methenamine pill test is for carpet. The smoke density test does not measure flame spread, which is of vital importance. The vertical ignition test is for window coverings.
In which building type are fire-resistive construction requirements likely to be LEAST restrictive?
A.) Type I
B.) Type II
C.) Type III
D.) Type IV
D is correct. The msot restictive building type is Type I, while the least restrictive is Type V.
A desinger selecting glass to meet the requirements for safety glazing in a hazardous location should specify
A.) tempered or laminated glass
B.) tempered or wired glass
C.) heat-strengthened glass or wired glass
D.) laminated glass or wired glass
A is correct. Only tempered and laminated glass are considered to be safety glazing, because they meet the requirements of 16 CFR 1201. Refer to Ch. 10 for imformation on glazing.
Which test is most frequently used to evaluate carpet in the United States?
A.) flooring radiant panel test
B.) Steiner tunnel test
C.) mehenamine pill test
D.) methods of fire tests of building construction and materials
C is correct. All carpet manufactured or sold in the United States is required to pass the pill test. The flooring radiant panel test is used for corridor flooring and types of flooring in only a few occupancies. The Steiner tunnel test can be used, but is not a realistic test on carpet because the material is tested on top of the tunnel.
If a material does not burn, it is considered to be
A.) fire retardant
B.) fire rated
C.) flame resistant
D is correct. By definition, a material that does not ignite or burn is considered noncombustible.
In a fully sprinkled office building, how many sprinklers would be required in a room measuring 20 ft x 25 ft?
C is correct. The only way to locate sprinklers such that the maximum spacing between heads is 15 ft and the maximu spacing from the walls is 7 1/2 feet is to use four heads.
What building components determine the construction classification type?
The fire resistence of:
1.) the structural frame
2.) Interior and exterior bearing walls
3.) floor and roof construction
What is a fire protection rating?
Period of time an opening assembly such as a door or window maintains the ability to confine a fire or maintains the ability to confine a fire or maintains its integrity, or both when tested in accordance with NFPA 252, UL 10B or UL10C for doors and NFPA 257 for windows. An assembly that requires this must withstand fire exposure and thermal shock as with a fire-resistance rating, but not heat transmission as walls, columns, and floors do.
What is a fire resistance rating?
The period of time a building component such as wall, floor, roof, beam, or column maintans its structural integrity or both, when tested with ASTM E119, Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Materials. This is different from "fire protection rating" which involves protected opening assemblies.
List some things that the occupancy classification effects.
1.) Maximum Area
2.) # of floors allowed
3.) How the building is separated from other structures
The calculation of the occupant load; interior finishes, ventilation and sanitation requirements
What is UL?
Underwriter's Laboratories - develops standards and tests products for safety. When a product passes the test its given a UL label.
Capable of burning with a flame and subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion.
What is fire resistive construction?
Same as fire resistance
What is ASTM?
American Society for Testing and Materials - an agency that publishes thousands of test procedures that prescribe in detail how the test apparatus is set up, how to prepare materials for tests, length of the test, etc...
List adjunct sources building codes use when being formed.
1.) Federal laws and regulations (ADA)
2.) State and local laws and regulations (pertaining mainly to the geographic nature of the area)
3.) Standard writing agencies (ASTM)
4.) Federal agencies
5.) Trade industy associations (Gypsum Association)
6.) Standards approving groups (ANSI)
When is it important for an interior designer to know the construction type of a building?
If major changes are being made like going from one type of occupancy to another the designer must know the construction type to verify that the maximum area is not exceeded - or if it is the designer will need to specify a fire wall or add sprinklers or change the fire ratings of coverings of structural elements, floor/ceiling, assemblies, and openings in rated walls.
Define flame spread.
The propogation of flame over a surface.
What is flame retardant?
Should not be used as a noun. It's an adjective. It should only be used as a modifier with defined compound terms such as flame-retardant treated woods.
What is flame resistance?
The ability to withstand flame or give protection from it. This applies to individual materials and combinations of components when tested in accordance to NFPA 701 Standard Methods of Fire Test for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films.
What is a fire protection system?
Describes any fire alarm or fire-extinguishing device or system that is designed and installed to detect, control or extinguish a fire; to alert occupants or the fire department that a fire has occurred or a combination of any of these.
What is the IBC?
International Building Code
What is the model code?
Code that has been written by a group of experts knowledgeable in the field, without reference to any particular geographical area.
What is the UBC?
Uniform Building Code
What is the SBC?
Standard Building Code
What are the 3 traditional model codes?
1.) Uniform Building Codes - used in central and western US
2.) Standard Building Code - used in the southeastern US
3.) BOCA National Building Code - used in the northeast
International Code Council - a group formed by the 3 model code groups to publish the International Building Code in 2000. Also publishes a family of codes including the International Residential Code, International Mechanical Code.
What are the types of labels UL gives out?
1.) Listed label - when a complete and total product is successfully tested it received this and its given a listed label
2.) Classified label - the product was test for certain types of uses only and includes the statement specifying the conditions it can be used under
What are some sources that list acceptable construction assemblies?
1.) Underwriter's Laboratories Building Materials Directory
2.) Manufacturer's Proprietary Product Literature
3.) Other reference sources
What are regulations of glazing?
The use of glass in hazardous locations such as doorways, shower doors, glass adjacent to doors, and other places where people might fall through is regulated by using safety glazing - laminate or tempered glass.
How are most fire protection systems activated?
1.) smoke or other products of combustion
2.) a rise in temperature to a predetermined level
3.) a rate or rise of temperature to a predetermined rate of change
What are the 2 broad classifications of fire-resistance recognized by building codes?
1.) Surface Burning Characteristics of Finish Materials - The Steiner Tunnel Test (ASTM E84) helps determine what materials can be used based on the rate of flame spread and limits the amount of combustible material in a building. Includes finishes like wainscotting, paneling, heavy wallcovering, acoustic and surface installation, etc...
2.) Resistance of Construction materials and assemblies - building codes specify which types of construction materials and assemblies can be used. Many materials by themselves don't create a fire barrier - only when they are part of an assembly that's rated. i.e. acoustical ceiling that's rated.
How would an interior designer determine the construction type of an existing building?
1.) Ask the local building official
2.) Check with the building's architect if it's currently being designed or has been constructed recently.
According to the IBC, what are the 9 types/subtypes of construction classifications?
1.) Type I - A
2.) Type I - B
3.) Type II - A
4.) Type II - B
5.) Type III - A
6.) Type III - B
7.) Type IV
8.) Type V - A
9.) Type V - B
**Type I Bldgs are the most fire resistive, Type V are the least.
List the 10 major groups of occupancies according to the UBC and give their initial.
A - Assembly
B - Business
E - Educational
F - Factory and Industrial
H - Hazardous
I - Institutional
M - Mercantile
R - Residential
S - Storage
U - Utility
**These were developed b/c different uses of a bldg. require different responses to maintain fire and life safety.
What is non combustible?
Material that will not ignite and butn when subjected to fire. The UBC and IBC require that material is this only if it is tested in accordance with ASTM E 136, Non-Combustible Materials Test or if it has a structural base of noncombustible material with a surfacing not more than 1/8" thick that has a flame spread indox no greater than 50.
The term used when occupancy classifications are divided into subgroups that define the relative hazard level of the occupancy.
i.e. R-1 = hotels and apartments
R-3 = dwellings
R-2 = apartments, dorms, condos
R-4 = residential care or assisted living facilities that have 5-16 residents
What is the flame spread index?
The numerical value assigned to a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
What is fire resistance?
The property of a material or assembly to withstand or resist the spread of fire or give protection from it.
What is a general rule about occupancy separation?
Each occupancy must be separated from other occupancies with a fire-resistive separation with an hourly rating that is defined by a particular code.
What is a fire partition?
A new term in the 2000 IBC that means a fire resistive component used to separate dwelling units R-2 construction, to separate guest rooms in Group R-1 construction, to separate tenant spaces in covered mall buildings and for corridor walls. These are generally required to be a min of 1-hr construction except in certain circumstances. Similar to fire barriers but requirements for support aren't as strict.
What is combustible?
Material that will ignite and burn, either as a flame or glow, and that undergoes this process in air at pressures and temperatures that might occur during a fire in a building.
What is a fire barrier?
A new term in the 2000 IBC that means a fire resistance rated vertical or horizontal assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.
What is fire assembly?
An assembly of a fire door, fire window, or fire damper, including all required anchorage frames, sills and hardware.