nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
energy releasing biochemical reactions that use oxygen.
Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid.
aquatic life zones
Marine and freshwater portions of the biosphere.
the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
biogeochemical (nutrient) cycles
elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed between organisms and parts of the biosphere in a cycle
All of the populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area
organic matter that contains stored energy
a community of living organisms of a single major ecological region
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
Pertaining to life; environmental factors created by living organisms
living parts of an ecosystem
the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
Organisms that eat other animals for energy
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
the act of competing as for profit or a prize
one species succeeding over another when the growth of both species is limited by the same resource
organisms that use the food producers make or eat other consumers
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
bacteria which often live in damp soil, and which convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
A heterotroph that derives its energy from nonliving organic material
dead organic matter
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another in a food chain or web
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
a community of organisms and their nonliving environment
a theory that explains how random changes in genetic material and competition for scarce resources cause species to change gradually
no longer in existence
The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
, the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
, refers to the sum total of all the different forms of genetic information carried by all organisms living on Earth today
gross primary productivity
, the rate at which energy is produced in an ecosystem
, the area where an organism lives, grows, and develops
, consumers that eat only plants
, an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
, The cycle through which water in the hydrosphere moves; includes such processes as evaporation, precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff
, All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
, in a community competition for resources between members of different species
, competition between members of the same species
, a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance
, an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing
limiting factor principle
, Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population of a species in an ecosystem, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance for the species
, a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
natural greenhouse effect
, The absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere. It keeps the earth's temperature within a certain range.
, a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
net primary productivity
, the rate at which biomass accumulates in an ecosystem
, the ecological "job and address" of a plant or animal in nature.
, the continuous sequence of events by which atmospheric nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted, as by nitrification and nitrogen fixation, into substances that can be utilized by green plants, the substances returning to the air and soil as a result of the decay of the plants and denitrification.
nitrogen fixing bacteria
, Bacteria that convert nitrogen into useable forms for plants
, an animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances
, a consumer that eats both plants and animals
, an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant)
, the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
, process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
, a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
, any animal that lives by preying on other animals
, animal hunted or caught for food
, An organism that eats producers
, organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis
pyramid of energy flow
, energy loss for a simple food chain
range of tolerance
, Range of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for populations of a particular species to stay alive and grow, develop, and function normally.
, animals that would feed off of herbivores or primary consumers
, the formation of new species as a result of evolution
, group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
, the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer; temperature increases as you go up
, Cyclic movement of sulfur in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment.
, the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
, used of organisms (especially of different species) living together but not necessarily in a relationship beneficial to each
third and higher level consumers
, Carnivores that feed on other carnivores.
, each step in a food chain or food web
, the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer