Surrounded by a cell membrane
Composed of nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles
What is a cell?
Measures 8-10 nm in width
Inner electron-dense lamina and electron-lucent intermediate layer
Hydrophyllic heads on outside and Hydrophobic tails oppose each other
Integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins
Has outer glycocalyx coat (glycolipid and glycoprotein)
Describe a cell membrane or plasmalemma.
1. Selective permeable
2. Receptor sites for antigens
3. Receptor sites for hormones
What are the functions of a cell membrane?
Skeletal muscle cells and osteoclasts
Which cells contain more than one nucleus?
Mammalian erythrocytes lack nuclei
Which cells have no nucleus?
How thick is the nuclear envelope?
Chromatin arranged in basophilic clumps (mostly in inactive cells)
What is heterochromatin?
Chromatin that is lightly stained and uniformly dispersed, (active form)
What is euchromatin?
Sex chromatin, prominent in neutrophils of females
What is a Barr body?
When the nucleus is euchromatic, suggestive of a lot of protein synthesis going on
When can you see the nucleolus?
Only mature mammalian erythrocytes contain ribosomes
Which cells do not contain ribosomes?
What is the function of ribosomes?
produces secretory vesicles
What is the function of Endoplasmic reticulum?
What is the roughER involved in?
synthesis of steroid hormones
What is the smoothEF involved in?
Provides site for the accumulation, concentration and packaging of secretory proteins into membrane bound vesicles
What is the function of the Golgi complex?
lysosome that gets rid of old or no longer active organelles
What is an autophagosome?
lysosome that gets rid of foreign bodies
What is a heterophagosome?
Contents of secondary lysosomes that accumulate in cells and can be used to tell cell age
What is lipofuscin?
They synthesize and destroy hydrogen peroxide
What do peroxisomes do?
Janus Green B
What is mitochondria stained with?
Chief source of energy for the cell, indicates cell is active
What is the function of mitochondria?
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules embedded in the cytoplasmic matrix or cytosol
What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
Endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migratory activity
What membrane activities are associated with microfilaments?
Provide strength and shape of the cell
What do intermediate filaments do?
Important for transport of organelles and vesicles and cell division
What do microtubules do?
What are some cytoplasmic inclusions?
What type of junction is found in epithelial cells, has transmembrane proteins, and is common in the branching and reunited of blood vessels?
Zonula adherens, desmosomes or macula adherens, and hemidesmosomes
What are the three Adhering junctions?
Cells held together by transmembrane protein, bundle of actin filaments run parallel to junctional cell membrane. Common in lining of intestines.
What is a zonula adherens junction?
Strong junction with transmembrane proteins and intercellular electron-dense plaque. Intermediate filaments form hairpin loop
What is a desmosome or macula adherens?
Cell to basement membrane connection
What is a hemidesmosome junction?
Communicating (gap) junctions
What junction permits direct passage of inorganic ions, bridged by interlocking transmembrane proteins and common in muscles?
Composed of nine doublet microtubules around two central microtubules. Found in respiratory and male and female system
What is cilia and where is it found?
cytoplasmic evagination of cells to increase the free surface for absorption, found in small intestine
What is the function of microvilli?
Long, rigid microvilli of the spiral organ (corti) of the inner ear, non-moving
What are stereocilia?
Protection, absorption, secretion, and diffusion
What are the functions of epithelium?
Lamina lucida, lamina densa (basalis), subbasal lamina
What does the basement membrane consist of?
What is a layer of epithelium that is a single layer?
What is a layer of epithelium that is two or more layers?
Simple squamous epithelium, common in blood vessels and liver epithelium
What epithelium layer is single, thin and flat with the nucleus looking slightly elevated (bulging)?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, common in trachea and bronchi
What epithelium layer is composed of a single layer of cells of different shapes giving the impression of stratified epithelium?
Stratified squamous epithelium, skin and cornea
What epithelium is several layers thick with the most superficial being squamous?
lining of the excretory duct of glands
Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium usually found?
parotid and mandibular gland ducts
Where is stratified columnar epithelium usually found?
urinary bladder and urethra
Where is transitional epithelium found?
Secretory epithelium and duct system (parenchyma) with supportive connective tissue (stroma)
What is a gland?
Endocrine (ductless) and Exocrine (system of ducts)
What are the two types of glands?
straight (large intestine)
coiled (sweat gland)
What are the three types of simple tubular glands?
Where are simple alveolar or acinar glands found?
large sebaceous gland
Where are simple branched acinar or alveolar glands found?
minor salivary gland of oral cavity
Where are tubulo-acinar (alveolus) glands found?
compound tubular, compoud alveolar (parotid gland) and compound tubulo-alveolar (pancreas)
What types of compound glands are there?
These glands produce a thin, watery secretion.
These glands produce a thick, viscous (mucin) secretion.
Seromucous or mixed glands
These glands have both serous and mucous acini.
secretory granules enclosed in a membrane, exocytosed
What type of secretory release is merocine?
membrane bound granule with rim of cytoplasm and plasmalemma, released at apex of cell
e.g. sweat and mammary gland
What type of secretory release is apocrine?
entire cell is released as secretory product
e.g. sebaceous gland
What type of secretory release is holocrine?
Material is secreted from cell to the cytoplasm of another cell
e.g. transfer of melanin pigment
What type of secretory release is cytocrine?
Cells, fibers and amorphous ground substance
What is connective tissue composed of?
CT cells found adjacent to blood vessels
Can differentiate into any other type of cell
Most common CT cells, active and quiescent forms
Responsible for synthesis of fibers
Fibroblast cells that contain actin filament
Contraction during wound healing
Ct cells that are stellate-shaped
Spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm
Produce reticular fibers
CT cells filled with large lipid droplets
Nucleus is displaced to periphery
CT cells filled with multiple lipid droplets
Nucleus is centrally located
Elongated CT cells located near the endothelium lining small blood vessels
Contain actin and myosin
Have potential to transform into other cells
Participate in healing
Common in loose CT and abundant around blood vessels
Produce heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine
CT cells abundant in lymphatic tissues
Have spherical, eccentric nucleus (cart wheel like appearance)
Cytoplasm very basophilic
CT cells that are phagocytic
Located in blood, migrate across blood vesel walls into CT
Contain cytoplasmic vacuoles and numerous lysosomes
Cells containing pigment
White blood cells
Migrate through capillary walls to CT
tendon, ligament, and organ capsule
Where are collagen fibers located?
Most abundant fibers in mature CT
Made of fibrous protein
Strong and flexible but inelastic
Have a wavy arrangement
These fibers form the framework of liver, endocrine, and lymphatic organs
Fibers are individual collagen fibrils (type III collagen) coated with proteoglycans and glycoproteins
Fibers present in structures that require elasticity
Located in aorta, lungs, pinna of ear
Composed of elastin protein, covered by glycoprotein (fibrillin)
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans
What is amorphous ground substance composed of?
CT found in various types of adult CT, composed of mesenchymal cells and amorphous fluid-filled ground substance
Mucous or gelatinous CT
CT found in umbilical cord and papillae of bovine glans penis, composed of stellate fibroblasts, AGS with collagen fibers
Loose or areolar CT
CT found beneath epithelium, around blood vessels and nerves, and in serous membranes. Ground substance predominates
CT found in tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis, capsules of organs, and deep layer of the dermis
CT found in nuchal ligament and vocal ligament, composed of elastic fibers
CT found in spleen, lymph node, and liver
composed of reticular cells and reticular fibers
CT found in loose CT of mesenteries and around blood vessels and nerves.
Composed of adipocytes
CT tissue lacks blood vessels and is composed of cartilage cells
CT cells found in growing cartilage.
Oval shaped with a spherical nucleus
CT cell located in the lacuna of cartilage
fibers and gound substance containing proteoglycans and GAGs. The matrix shows marked metachromasia
What is the cartilage matrix composed of?
Articular surfaces of bones, nose and trachea
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Occur singly in a lacuna or in clusters called isogenous groups
How are chondrocytes arranged in cartilage?
Pinna and epiglottis
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Intervertebral discs and menisci and lacks a distinct perichondrium
Where is fibrocartilage found?
Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
What are the three cell types in bones?
Bone forming cell that varies from columnar to squamous in shape and secretes osteoid.
Mature bones that lie in a lacuna.
A large multinucleated cell located in the area of bone resorption, bone eating cell
Consists of fibrous and osteogenic layers and lines outside of bone
What is periosteum?
Lines the marrow cavity with a single layer of squamous cells
What is endosteum?
What type of bone forms the outer shells of the diaphysis and epiphysis?
What type of bone consists of delicate bony plates and spicules?
What type of bone consists of haversian canals (osteons), circumferential lamellae, and interstitial lamellae?
How are bones in the skull formed? (excluding the base of the skull)
Intracartilagenous or endochondral ossification
How are most bones in the body formed?
What type of muscle tissue is striated, voluntary and have multiple oval nuclei located peripherally?
What type of muscle tissue is striated, involuntary, single nucleus, and Purkinje fibers?
What type of muscle is non-striated, involuntary, and single nucleus?
What type of cells are located adjacent to myocytes and are activated upon injury to initiate some regeneration of muscle fibers?
Red muscle fibers
What type of muscle fibers are known as slow twitch fibers (rich in myoglobin and mitochondria)?
White muscle fibers
What type of muscle fibers are known as fast twich and have few mitochondria?
neurons and neuroglia
What are the two types of cells that are in nervous tissue?
Brain and spinal cord
The central nervous system is made up of _____ and ______.
The peripheral nervous system is made up of _______ and _______ nerves.
What does the autonomic nervous system innervate?
Layers that surround the central nervous system and roots of the peripheral nerves
What are meninges?
Cavities of brain and spinal cord
Where is CSF present?
Cell body (perikaryon) and nueronal processes (axon and dendrites)
What makes up a neuron?
braind and spinal cord
Where are multipolar neurons found?
bipolar cells of the retina
Where are bipolar neurons found?
Where are unipolar neurons found?
(also called pseudopolar neurons)
Cats and rodents
In what animals is a sex chromatin evident in the vicinity of the nucleolus of a nerve cell body?
What pigments are residue of lysosomal activity and is used to tell age in nerve cells?
Nissl substance and numerous mitochondria
What are some things commonly found in nerve cell cytoplasm?
What processes of nerve cell bodies are devoid of golgi complexes, have a think band of electron dense material associated with plasmalemma, and have spines called gemmules?
chromatophilic substance (nissl substance)
The axon cytoplasm is devoid of what?
neurotransmitter molecules stored within a synaptic vesicle
What does each terminal branch of an axon (terminal bulb) contain?
Contact between two neurons or b/t neurons and effector cells
What are synapses?
What are the three types of synapses?
Gliocytes, provide structural and functional support
What is another name for Neuroglial cells and what is their function?
Which neuroglial cells are in the CNS?
Neurolemmocytes (Shwann cells) which myelinate axons
Which neuroglial cells are in the PNS?
Binds neurons to capillaries and the pia mater
What is the function of astrocytes?
What is the term for astrocytes in the white matter?
What is the term for astrocytes in the grey matter?
Produces a meylin sheath which provides electrical insulation for neurons in the CNS
What is the function of Oligodendrocytes?
Schwann cells, produce myelin sheaths in PNS
What do neurolemmoctyes do?
Phagocytic cells derived from bone marrow
What are microglial cells?
Facilitate the movement of CSF
What is the function of ependymal cells?
Aggregations of nerve cell bodies along the course of peripheral nerves
What are ganglia?
cranial nerves or dorsal root of spinal nerves, contain cell bodies of unipolar neurons
What are sensory ganglia associated with?
accumulations of multipolar nerve cells along autonomic nerves, have eccentric nuclei
What are autonomic ganglia?
Exteroreceptors (body surface), Enteroreceptors (viscera), and Proprioceptors (musculoskeletal structures)
What are the three types of receptors by location?
What are the three types of stimulus?
What is the distance between a motor end plate and and the corresponding trough of the muscle sole plate in a neuromuscular synapse?
Patches of nerve cell bodies
What does nuclei of the brain refer to?
External granular layer
External pyramidal layer
Internal granular layer
Internal pyramidal layer
What are the layers of the cerebral cortex from outer layer to inner layer?
The grey is outside and the white inside
How are the grey and white matter arranged in the cerebellum?
Outer molecular layer
Inner granular layer
Intermediate Purkinje cell layer
What are the three layers of the cerebellar cortex?
What space of the meninges is the CSF obtained from in an epidural?