# Geology C-3

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### absolute zero

(cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal)

### annual mean temperature

Average of the 12 monthly means

### annual temperature range

computed by finding the difference between the warmest and coldest monthly mean temperatures

### bimetal strip

A thermometer consisting of two thin strips of metal welded together and that have widely different coefficients of thermal expansion. When temperatures change the two metals expand or contract unequally and cause changes in the curvature of the element.

### Celsius Scale

a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 0 degrees and the boiling point of water as 100 degrees

### Controls of Temperature

Factors that cause temperature to vary from lace to place ad from Time to Time.

### cooling degree - day

The amount of power required to cool a building defined in an index. Determined by subtracting 65 degrees F from the daily mean.

### daily mean temperature

determined by averaging the 24 hourly readings, or more frequently, by adding the maximum and minimum temperatures from a 24 hour period and dividing by 2.

### daily temperature range

computed by finding the difference between the daily maximum and minimum temperatures

### Fahrenheit Scale

Scale where, a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 32 degrees and the boiling point of water a 212 degrees

### fixed points

Reference points, like the steam point and the ice point, used in the construction of temperature scales.

### growing degree - day

Agricultural application of temperature data to determine the appropriate date when a crop will be ready to harvest.

### heating degree - day

represents a practical method for evaluating energy demand and consumption. The degree of temperature below 65 degree F. is counted as 1 heating degree

### ice point

the melting point of ice (32 degrees)

### isotherm

line that connects points on a map that have the same temperature. Iso=equal; therm=temperature. Therefore, all points through which an isotherm passes have identical temperatures for the time period indicated.

### Kelvin or absolute scale

temperature scale wherein the ice point is 273 and the steam point at 373 and zero point represents the temperature at which all molecular motion is presumed to cease called absolute zero. It is not possible to have a negative temperature

### liquid in-glass thermometer

Thermometer designed in the 1600's wherein the rising temperatures cause the molecules of fluid to become more active and spread out (expansion) at a faster rate than the enclosing glass.

### maximum thermometer

Specially designed in-glass thermometer wherein Mercury is used as the liquid., specially modified mercury thermometer that measures the maximum temp. attained in a given period of time

### minimum thermometer

An in-glass thermometer which contains alcohol Records Minimum temperature in a given period of time

### monthly mean temperature

total daily mean temperatures of the month divided by the number of days in the months

### specific heat

the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade. Water requires 3 times more heat than land.

### steam point

The point at which water at standard pressure boils

change in temperature as a function of distance (especially altitude)

### thermistor

a semiconductor device made of materials whose resistance varies as a function of temperature

### Thermograph

instrument that measure temperature changes by recording the movement of the bar of a bimetal thermometer

### thermometers

meters of therms - mechanical or electrical devices used to measure temperature

Example: