← Ch22: Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All meningitis inflammation of the meninges encephalitis Inflammation of the brain myelitis inflammation of the spinal cord Hemophilus influenzae gram- bacillus responsible for 5% of all bacterial meningitis cases Streptococcus pneumoniae a gram positive cocci responsible for 40% of all bacterial meningitis cases Neisseria meningitidis gram- bacterium responsible for 30% of all bacterial meningitis cases meningitis (2 and older) Sign & Symptoms: respiratory illness, sore throat, severe headache, fever, stiff neck, possible non-blanching rash, lethargy, confusion, photophobia, possible shock or seizures, death nuchal cord rigidity stiff neck reaction to inflammation and irritation of spinal meninges Brudzinskis Sign Demonstrable sign of meningitis where severe neck stiffness causes a patient's hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed. Kernigs Sign Demonstrable sign of meningitis flexing the patient's hip 90 degrees then extending the patient's knee causes pain. photophobia sensitivity to light in meningitis due to optic nerve inflammation meningitis (2 and under) Sign & Symptoms: fever, rash, bulging fontanelles, opisthotonus, poor feeding, irritability or inactivity, seizure, coma, death opisthotonus involves muscle spasms that cause an arching of the neck and back spinal tap Procedure used to diagnose meningitis, during which a large needle is inserted between L2-L4 to aspirate the CSF. Cloudy=infection Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcal meningitis is caused by ______. IgA protease and Lipid A endotoxins What 2 factors increase the virulence of Neisseria meningitidis? IgA protease destroy IgA antibodies found on mucosal surfaces Neisseria meningitidis The leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults is _________. Neisseria meningitidis meningitis (with skin rash, purple petechiae or purpura); gram - diplococci; spreads by aerosol droplets in crowded conditions, and can also present as septicemia septisemic meningitis Type of meningitis where endotoxin spreads throughout blood and lymph causing endotoxic shock, petechial rash (doesn't fade when pressed), edema, tachycardia, gangrene aseptic meningitis meningitis having a viral cause and most benign; has best outcome, mild symptoms, and shortest in duration aseptic meningitis meningitis w/ negative CSF Gram stain & bacterial culture poliovirus poliomyelitis is caused by ______ poliomyelitis transmitted thru fecal-oral route and causes destruction of spinal neurons poliomyelitis destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons by the poliovirus, muscles atrophy, death may occur due to paralysis, survivors often develop postpolio syndrome peripheral Polio does not infect the _____ nerves and muscles. rabies an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal rabies Decreased ability to swallow causes drooling or aspiration, fatal in all cases if left untreated, hydrophobia, fatal encephalitis fatal encephalitis If rabies is left untreated it almost always results in___ prodromal phase Phase of rabies when symptoms are flu-like, possible nervousness, partial paralysis near the bite site, and periods of aggression and calm excitation phase Phase of rabies when there is an onset of loss of muscle control, painful mouth spasms, hydrophobia, excessive salivation, impaired speech and vision, and person remains awake and alert. paralytic phase Final phase of rabies where consciousness fades in and out, and extensive neuron damage leads to fatal encephalitis and/or death due to inability to breath.