What is gypsum wallboard?
A gypsum core sandwiched between heavy paper and other materials. Standard sheets include 4' wide sheets in lengths of 8,10, 12, & 14--ther is a company that makes 4 1/2' wide sheets for hanging horizonatally when ceilings are 9' tall.
What are the thickensses of gypsum wallboard?
5/8" thick-used for most commercial work
1/2" thick - used for most residential work
1/4" thick - used for forming curved surfaces and for providing new finished over old walls and ceiling surfaces
3/8" thick - used in some double layer applications or when wallboard is applied over other finished walls in remodeling work
**Double layer applications are used for additional fire resistance or acoustical control.
What are hat-shapped furrinig channels?
Used for ceiling framing and to fur out from concrete or masonry walls if the walls are uneven (for finishing purposes) or if additional depth is needed for electrical outlets or insulation.
When would you use a floor & ceiling runner (e-shaped channels)?
A runner commonly used ot hold a metal stud in place when framing occurs
When are resilient channels used?
To improve the acoustical properties of a wall by isolating the wallboard from rigid attachment to the the framing.
What are the components for a wall in a typical commercial application?
2 1/2" or 3 5/8" metal studs built up to a suspended ceiling or a slab to slab partition and allows enough room for electrical boxes and small pipes. Studs are normally spaced 24" on center with 5/8" thick wallboard--can add Type X wallboard or layers of Type X wallboard to provide fire protection. One layer of 5/8" thick will provide 1 hour fire rated partition.
What are the components for a wall in a typical residential application?
2 1/2" stud spaced 16" on center with 1/2" thick wallboard.
What is an LC Bead?
Edge trim requiring finishing with joint compound.
What is an LK Bead?
Edge trim for use with various thicknesses of wallboard in a kerfed jamb (one with a small slot cut in). It requires finishing with joint compound.
What is a U Bead?
Edge trim that does not require finishing with joint compound but the edge fo the metal is noticeable. It is sometimes called J metal by contractors.
What is plaster?
A finish material made from various types of cementing compounds, fine aggregate and water--used as an interior finish material.
What is stucco?
An exterior type of plaster made with portland cement.
What are the two types of plaster construction?
1.) The traditional method using a metal lath attached to metal or wood studs--this a base for the plaster. Apply 3 coats of the plaster, 1. scratch, 2. broom (levels surface) and 3. finish coat.
2.) Using gypsum board lath instead of metal lath--a special gypsum product where plasterer applies one or two coats of thin veneer plaster.
What are the parameters for specifying glass block?
1.) Glass expansion requires that one must provide expansion joints around the perimeter of glass block walls
2.) Glass block cannot be load bearing; individual panels are limited to 250 square feet or 25 feet in any dimension.
What are the 5 types of wallboard?
1.) Tapered edges on face side along the long dimension of the panel; square edges along ends--this is for finishing purposes.
2.) Type X - for fire rated partitions
3.) Foiled back - for vapor barriers; water resistent areas
4.) Backing board - for two layer applications
5.) Predecorated - vinyl wallcovering applied
What are the three components of a door system?
1.) the door
2.) the frame
3.) the hardware
What are the two types of wood doors?
1.) flush door
2.) panel door
What types of materials are metal doors available in?
1.) steel - most common, 16 guage or 18 guage
2.) stainless steel
5.) other materials are available on special order
What are the three most common types of metal doors?
1.) Flush - single smooth surface on both sides
2.) Sash - contain one or more glass lights
3.) Louvered - have an opening with metal slats to provide ventilation
* Paneled steel doors are available for residential use where energy conservation, durability, and a traditional appearance is required.
What are the standard measurements for a wood door?
Width - 2'-0", 2'-4", 2'-6", 2'-8", 3'-0"
Height - 6'-8", 7'-0"
Hollow core: 1 3/8" thick
Solid core: 1 3/4" thick
What are the standard measurements of metal doors?
Width: 2'-0", 2'-4", 2'-6", 2'-8", 3'-0", 3'-4", 3'-6", 3'-8", 4'-0"
Height: 6'-8", 7'-0", 8'-0"
Thickness: 1 3/4" thick
What is a full mortise or butt hinge?
The most common type of hinge. Both leaves are fully mortised into the frame and the edge of the door so the hinge is flush with the surface of the frame & door.
What is a swing clear hinge?
type of hinge that has a special shape that allows the door to swing 90-95 degrees so the full opening of the door is available.
What is a latch set?
A beveled latch that extends from the face of the door edge and automatically engages the strike mounted in the frame when the door is closed.
What is a ball-bearing hinge?
A type of hinge typically used for commercail applications-can come in a standard weight or a heavyweight for high frequency applications-must be used for fire-rated assemeblies and in all door closers.
What are three most common types of locks?
1.) Cylindrical Lock - installed in holes drilled in the door; inexpensive and used for commercial and residential projects -available in light duty, standard duty, and heavy duty.
2.) Mortise Lock - installed in a rectangular area cut out of the door; more secure then a cylindrical lock and offers a much wider variety of locking options.
3.) Preassembled lock - has its mechanism in a rectangular box that fits withina notch out in the ede of the door.
What are pivots?
An alternate way to hang doors where the appearance of hinges is objectionable or where a frameless door design may make it impossible to use hinges. ie. bifold doors
What are closers?
Devices that automatically return a door to its closed position after its openend. Can be surface mounted or in the head frame or concealed in the frame or door--required on fire-rated doors.
What is panic hardware?
A type of hardware used where required by building code for safe egress.
Why would you use a door stop and bumper?
To keep a door from damaging adjacent construction.
What are astragals?
Vertical member used between double doors to seal the opening, act as a door stop or provide extra security when the door is closed.
What are push plates and pull bars used for?
To operate a door that does not require automatic latching. Commonly used in toilet rooms and commercial kitchens.
What are thresholds?
These are used where floor materials change at a door line, where a hard surface is required for an automatic door bottom, or where minor changes in floor lever occur.
What is float glass?
a.k.a annealed glass. The standard type of glass used in common windows and other applications where addtional strength or other properties are not required. Used in small openings or where safety glass is not required in interiors.
What is glazing?
The process of installing glass in framing as well as installing the framing itself.
What is tempered glass?
Type of glass produced by subjecting annealed glass to a special heat temperature. Four times stronger than annealed glass. Safety glass that is used in hazardous locations--when it breaks it breaks in very small pieces--commonly 1/4" thick.
What is laminated glass?
A type of glass utilized where very strong glazing is required or acoustical control is needed. It is bullet resistant and provides high security against intentional or accidental breakage. iIt consists of 2 or more layers of glass binded together by polyvinyl butryl resin - when the glass breaks the interlayer of polyvinyl butryal resis holds the pieces together so the glass doesn't fall.
What is wire glass?
A type of glass where a mesh of wire is embedded in the middle of the sheet. It cannont be tempered, so it doesn't qualigy as safety glazing for hazardous location but it is used primarily in fire-rated assemblies where it is required by most builidng codes.
What is patterned glass?
A specialty glass made by passing a sheet of molten glass through rollers to achieve a desired pattern on one or both sides. Vision through the panel is diffused but not totally obscured.
What is a gypsum wallboard ceiling and how would it be used?
A type of ceiling construction often used in residential spaces; if used in commercial this type of ceiling is installed where access to valves, junction boxes, fire damepers, etc. is not necessary. The material is screwed to metal furring strips that are attached to steel channels.
**This type of ceiling reflects sound rather than absorbing it.
What is a suspended acoustical ceiling and how would it be used?
A ceiling type that consists of thin panels of wood floor, mineral fiber or glass fiber set in a support grid of metal framing that is suspended by wires from the structure above. These tiles are perforated or fissured to absorb sound.
Name 3 types of acoutical ceiling tiles and metal grid systems.
1.) Lay-in exposed grid: panels are laid on top of an exposed T-shaped grid--most common type
2.) Lay-in tegular: panels with rabbetted edges are layed into a T-shaped grid.
3.) Concealed spline: grid is completely concealed--typically uses a 1'x1' tile
**Whichever type is used the tile on the perimeter is supported by a ceiling angle.
What are lath and plaster ceilings?
A type of ceiling where metal lath is attached to ceiling joists (residential) or attached to a suspended grid and plaster is applied. Gypsum lath can replace metal lath. This costs more than a gypsum wallboard ceiling but can easily be curved in 2 directions for complex shapes.
What are hollow core doors
1 3/8" thick. A flush wood door that is made of one or three plies of veneer in each side of a cellular interior. Used primarily whre light use is expected and cost is a consideration. They have no fire-resistive capabilities.
What is an integrated ceiling?
A ceiling system that is designed to accommodate acoustical ceiling tile, light fixtures, supply and return air grilles, sprinklers and partition attachement designed to be used in a commercial application whre partitions, lights and other elements connected with the ceiling change frequently.
Name 3 types of solid stock lumber cutting.
1.) Plain sawing - makes more efficient use of wood and is least expensive. Wood is cut with various orientations to the grain of the tree-result is a cathedral pattern.
2.) Quarter sawing - log is cut into quarters and sawn perpendicular to a diameter. Resulting grain pattern is uniformly vertical. Better than plainsawn b/c it has fewer defects and shrinks less, cups less, and twists less.
3.) Rift sawing - provides even more consisten vertical grain by cutting radially to the center of the tree--more expensive that quarter sawings so its seldom used.
Name 9 common joints for millwork.
1.) Half lap
2.) Finger joint
6.) Dovetail Dado
8.) Shoulder Miter
9.) Splinted Miter
List different types of security available for interiors
1.) Intrusion Detection Devices - motion detectors, heat detectors, microwave & infared beams, pressure sensors to detect weight, alarms installed at glass door openings, etc... Alarms that notify central guard stations or central security offices
2.) Access to secured area controlled by: plastic cards, numbered keyboards, biological detection features detecting retina of eyes, palms of hands, etc...
Name 2 types of stains.
1.) Water based stains: yield a uniform color but raise the grain.
2.) Solvent based stains: dry quickly and don't raise grain but they do no yeild as uniform a color
What are the moisture guidelines for millwork?
Most wood is dried or acclimated to a particular region and it's humidity--the optimum moisture content of millwork for interior applications is from 5%-10%. In humid areas the optimum moisture content is 8-13%. In dryer areas it is 4-9%. Lower in dryer areas and higher in humid areas.
Describe high pressure plastic laminate.
A thin sheet of material made by impregnating several layers of kraft paper with phenolic resins and overlapping the paper with a patter or colored sheet and a layer of melamine resin. The assembly is placed in a hot press where under high pressure the layers fuse.
Describe solid surfacing material.
A homgenous, polymer-based surfacing material. A combination of a filler and a clear resin binder, either acrylic or polyester, or a mixture or the two. Lots of colors and speckles can be added. Can be formed into thick flat sheets or shapes like kitchen sinks. Standard thickness is 3/4" and some 1/2". Can be cleaned and repaired easily b/c color is integral throughout thickness. Used to mimic stone.
Describe the three ways veneer leaves are matched.
1.)Book matching: As veneers are shed off log, every other piece is turned over so that adjacent leaves form a symmetrical pattern.
2.)Slip matching: consecutive peices are placed side by side with same face sides being exposed.
3.)Random matching: place veneers in random sequence veneers from different flitches may be used.
What is a flitch?
Individual veneers that come from the same piece of log.
Describe a solid core door.
1 3/4" thick. Door made with a variety of core types depending on functional requirements of the door. Core may be particleboard or mineral core (for fire-rated doors) i.e. mineral wool.
Used for fire resistive properties, acoustical barriers, for securly and for superior durability. They are available with 20 minute, 45 minute or 90 minute fire ratings.
Describe the 3 types of bookmatching.
1.) Running match - alternates bookmatched venners regardless of the widths and how many must be used to complete panel.
2.) Balance match - utilizes venner pieces trimmed to equal widths of each panel.
3.) Center match - has an uneven # of veneer leaves of uniform width so that there is a veneer joint in the center of each panel.
What are the 3 ways to assemble panels within a room?
1.) Warehouse Match: panels are permanufactured in 4'x8' sheets or 4'x 10' sheets, are assembled from a single flitch. They are field cut to fit around doors, windows--some grain continuity is lost.
2.) Sequence Match - panels are manufactured for specific job & veneers are arranged in sequence. Some panels must be trimmed to fit around doors, etc... Moderate loss of grain continuity.
3.) Blue Print Match - most expensive, panels are manufactured to fit room precisely and line up with every obstruction so grain continuity is not obstructed--some items like doors will be covered in panels too.
What is scribe and why is it used?
A piece of material that allows the cabinet installer to fit the cabinet or countertop edge precisely against a wall that may not be perfectly straight.
Describe fire ratings with regards to woodwork.
Woodwork is mainly regulated as wall or ceiling finish material but is not regulated when used in furniture, cabinets, or trim.
Wall and ceiling finish include wainscotting, paneling, or other finishes applied structural decoration, acoustical correction, and surface insulation. This doesn't apply to finishes that are less that 1/28" thick and are cemented to surfaceof wall or ceiling if it is placed on fire-retardent material, such as particleboard. If the flame spread is 200 or below it's fine. A general rule: use a fire-retardent treated substrate.
Describe 4 types of door and drawer fronts.
1.) Flush: the face of the drawer is installed flush with the face frame - doors and drawers may sag so special care is needed.
2.) Lipped Overlay construction - a variation of flush--when the drawer faces overlap the frame and covers the joint between the two pieces.
3.) Flush Overlay - a European style where the front of the door overlaps the frace frame. Edges of the adjacent door fronts are separated by a very small amount of space - 1/8" or less.
4.) Reveal Overlay - A traditional style where the edges of adjacent doors are separated enough to reveal the face frame behind.
Describe 5 types of veneer cuts.
1.) Rotary: log is mounted to a lathe and turned against a knife which peels off a continuous layer of veneer; pronounced grain.
2.) Plain Slicing: same as solid stock; plain but thinner slices.
3.) Quarter slicing: same as solid stock; quarter but thinner slices
4.) Half Round: similar to rotary slicing but log is cut in half first and veneer is cut across the growth rings; produces pronounced growth pattern.
5.) Rift Slicing: log is quartered and then cut at 15 degree angle to growth rings - straight grain pattern results.
What are the building code requirements for glazing?
1.) Glazed openings must be protected by 1/4" wire glass installed in steel frames or by approved fire-rated glazing. The maximum glazed area cannot exceed 25% of the area of the corridor of the room that it is separated from the corridor. This for 1 hour rated corridors.
2.) Safety glazing is required in hazardious location - those subject to human impact like glass in doors, shower & bath enclosures and in certain locations in walls. a.) if it is a wondown less than 24" from a door and less than 60" high or if it is a window that is the height of the wall it requires safety glazing. Not required if it's separated by 1 1/2" bar and the bottom glass is 34"-38" or if it's less than 24" from a door that is greater than 18" a.f.f.
What are the types of substrates for plastic laminate construction?
1.) Particleboard - most common, dimensionably stable, smooth surface, has impact resistance and provides strength to hold screws and for constructing panels and casework.
2.) Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) - made from breaking down wood fibers into very fine fluff and then mixing it with glue & compressing it under high pressure. Formed into 4x8 sheets, 1/4" -1 1/4" thick, smoother surface is good for glass finish, more expensive, doesn't hold all screw types well, can be treated for fire resistance.
3.) Hardboard: has bonging problems (not good)
4.) Veneer Core: subject to warpage (not good)
What are the 2 standard tests for fire-rated doors.
1.) NFPA 80 - Standard for fire doors and windows--deals with the construction and installation of fire doors.
2.) NFPA 252 - Standard methods for fire tests of door assemblies - standard method for testing fire doors.
What are the elements to be considered with the selection of a ceiling system.
1.) recessed lights
3.) sprinkler piping
4.) smoke detectors
5.) fire alarm speakers
6.) return air grilles
What are raised barrel hinges?
Used when there is not room for the barrel to extend past the door trim - barrel is offset to allow one leaf to mortissed into the frame.
Discuss fire-rated glazing.
3 types of glass that has a fire rating from 30-90 minutes.
1.) visually clear ceramic
2.) a special tempered glass (max 30-minute rating)
3.) a type made 2 or 3 panes of glass with a transparent gel between. When subjected to fire the gel foams and forms a heat shield.
Some of these types cannot be used in hazardous locations.
What are door seals?
Door seals are used along the edges of doors to provide a tight seal against smoke, light, and sound. Fire-rated ones are required on fire doors and other types are used for acoustical separation between two rooms.
What are automatic door bottoms?
Devices that are mortised or surface applied to the bottom of the door to provide a sound or light seal.