Basic Chemistry (AP BIOLOGY)

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The basic building block of matter

atom

A pure substance containing one type of atom

element

Atoms are made of

protons, electrons, and neutrons

Protons and neutrons are located in

the nucleus of the atom

Electrons have a ____charge, ___mass.

negative; no

Protons have a ___charge, and a mass of

positive; 1 dalton

Neutrons have ____ no charge and a mass of ___

1 dalton

The periodic table organizes atoms by

atomic number

Vertical columns with the same number of valence electrons

Groups/families

Horizontal columns with the same number of energy levels

periods

The atomic number is equal to

the number of protons

The atomic mass number is equal to the

number of protons and neutrons

In a neutral atoms, the number of protons equals

the number of electrons

To figure out the number of neutrons

subtract atomic mass and the atomic number

Has more or less neutrons than shown on the periodic table

isotope

Element that has lost or gained electrons

ion

Ion that has lost electrons is a ___ and has a ___charge

cation; positive

Alkali metals are found in

Family 1

Alkaline Earch metals are found in

family 2

Elements in family 17 are the

halogens

Elements in family 16 are the

oxygen family

Family 17 elements have __ electrons in their outer shell

7

Family 16 have __ electrons in their outer shell

6

These bonds occur between ions where there is a transfer of electrons

ionic bonds

A compound contains

one or more different elements

the smallest part of a compound

molecule

The total charge of a compound must equal

0

shows the number of atoms and are written after the symbol

subscript

To write subscipts

criss cross the charges

shows the number of molecules and are written in front of a formula

coefficients

Molar mass is found by

multiplying the atomic mass number by the number of atoms of that element

There are __ naturally occurring elements

92

When radioactive elements decay they give off

alpha, beta, and gamma particles

All elements after 92 are

manmade

The breaking apart of an element with the release of energy

fission

the joining of 2 H atoms to form a helium atom with the release of energy as on the sun

fusion

Acids turn

litmus red

Name three characteristics of Acids

hydrogen donors, taste sour, are corrosive

Name 4 characteristics of bases

hydrogen acceptors, feel slippery, used in soaps, dissolve fats

Bases turn

litmus blue and phenolpthalein pink

an ion that has gained electrons in an ____ and has a __ charge

anion; positive

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