DCarver Micro Review

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Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding eukaryotic cell structure.

A) the glycocalyx functions to form pseudopodia for mobility of an organism

B) the eukaryotic cell membrane is a bilayer of sterols

C) chromosomes are generally not visible in the nucleus unless the cell is undergoing nuclear division

D) the nuclear envelope is a single layer

E) rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes

F) eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own 70S ribosomes and circular DNA

G) lysosomes are bags of digestive enzymes found in prokaryotic cells

H) cilia and flagella project from the cell and are not covered by the cytoplasmic membrane

I) although similar in function, the eukaryotic ribosome is generally smaller and more complex than the prokaryotic ribosome

J) the nucleolus is a highly active region of the nucleus that is required for synthesis of ribosomes

K) electron transport reactions that occur in the mitochondria of eukaryotes take place on the inner membrane of that structure

L) the golgi apparatus is responsible for the packaging of materials for secretion

Correct Answer(s): C, E, F, J, K, L

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding eukaryotic microorganisms.

A) fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are autotrophic

B) helminths may have both male and female reproductive organs in one organism

C) fungi produce both asexual and sexual spores

D) fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions

E) parasitic platyhelminths include the flukes and tapeworms

F) the most developed organ system of many of the parasitic helminths is the muscular system

G) the cell wall of fungi and algae are chemically identical to the prokaryotic cell wall

H) all fungi have hyphae

I) protozoans are usually eukaryotic and as such have a nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

J) fungi are often capable of locomotion through the use of flagella

K) a trophozoite is a life cycle stage involved in nutrient gathering and growth

L) a cyst formed by a protist functions as a mechanism against adverse changes in the environment and in transfer from one host
to the next

Correct Answer(s): B, C, E, K, L

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding viral structure and viral cultivation.

A) viruses contain both DNA and RNA in specific proportions

B) viruses are capable of metabolism

C) viruses lack a cell membrane

D) viruses grow in response to their environmental conditions

E) a naked virus has no membranous envelope

F) viruses may have DNA or RNA, but not both

G) viral DNA may be linear

H) virions are classified based on their lipid composition

I) viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that lack cellular structure

J) continuous cell lines differ from primary cell lines in that continuous cell lines always have to be reisolated from animal tissues

K) spikes are glycoproteins of the virus envelope

L) the most common capsid morphologies are icosahedral and helical

M) the presence or absence of an envelope is not useful in classifying viruses because any given virus may at one time have an
envelope and at another time not have an envelope

N) the enveloped viruses typically obtain their envelope from the host plasma membrane and as they exit the host

Correct Answer(s): C, E, F, G, I, K, L, N

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding viral multiplication.

A) when a virus enters a host cell, the viral genes redirect the genetic and metabolic activities of the host cell

B) viral spikes are inserted into the host cell membrane before budding or exocytosis

C) bacteriophages do not undergo adsorption to specific host cell receptors prior to penetration

D) prophages can be activated into viral replication and enter the lytic cycle

E) all viruses must separate the nucleic acid from the capsid before replication

F) the host range of a virus depends on the presence of host receptor molecules

G) nonenveloped viruses most often gain access to eukaryotic host cells by fusion with the host cell plasma membrane followed
by entrance of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm

H) bacteriophages and animal viruses differ because bacteriophages leave the capsid outsied the cell, while the animal virus entry
involves entry of the whole nucleocapsid

Correct Answer(s): A, B, D, E, F, H

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding microbial nutrition, ecology, and growth.

A) the term facultative anaerobe refers to an organism that doesn't use oxygen but tolerates it

B) the generation time refers to the length of time needed for a cell to divide

C) whether an organism is an autotroph or heterotroph depends on its source of nitrogen

D) a saprobe with a cell wall will utilize extracellular digestion

E) saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism

F) facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the movement across the plasma membrane

G) in a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed not benefited

H) bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours

I) transverse binary fission results in 4 daughter cells from 1 parent cell

J) during the lag phase of microbial growth the cells are metabolically inactive

K) when a microorganism is placed in a hypotonic solution, water will enter into the cell and cause it to burst unless something is
done to prevent this

L) permeable membranes allow some molecules to pass but not others

Correct Answer(s): B, D, F, G, K

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding enzymes.

A) the best way to control a metabolic pathway is to control the fastest enzyme in the series

B) denaturing an apoenzyme will destroy the three-dimensional shape of the protein, making it nonfunctional

C) each enzyme normally has specific pH and temperature optima at which they funciton best

D) the substrate of an enzyme binds at the active site

E) enzymes function as catalysts by bringing the substrates together at the active site, in effect concentrating them and bringing
the substrates together at the active site correctly oriented for the reaction

F) enzymes catalyze a reaction by decreasing the amount of energy released by the reaction

G) enzymes are changed by the reaction as they raise the activation energy

H) competitive inhibition usually involves both substrate and inhibitor competing for binding at the allosteric (regulatory) site

Correct Answer(s): B, C, D, E

Identify all of the following statements that are TRUE regarding cellular metabolism (cell respiration (aerobic and anaerobic),
fermentation, etc.)

A) substrate-level phosphorylation involves the direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate

B) strictly fermentative bacteria produce energy by aerobic cellular respiration only

C) fermentation involves the oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors

D) electron carriers are located at ribosomes

E) ATP is used for the long term storage of energy

F) anaerobic organisms are capable of cellular respiration

G) ATP is generated by the flow of protons across the cell membrane

H) ATP synthase is a complex enzyme needed for oxidative phosphorylation

I) all bacterial species that conduct cellular respiration have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport system

J) only yeast produces alcohol as a fermentation product

K) the production of ATP via the electron transport system in either eukaryotes or prokaryotes requires the use of a membrane

L) the Krebs cycle must turn twice in order to complete the oxidation of one glucose molecule

M) the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is water, which is broken down to hydrogen and oxygen

N) in the electron transport system NADH and FADH2 both donate electrons at the same location

Correct Answer(s): A, C, F, G, H, K, L

The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is

A) Mitochondria

B) Lysosomes

C) Outside of the cell

D) Cytoplasm

E) Within the cell membrane


Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella

A) Contain microtubules

B) Facilitate chemo taxis

C) Are used for cell motility

D) Are long whip-like structures

E) Facilitate photo taxis


The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein
carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called

A) Osmosis

B) Facilitated diffusion

C) Endocytosis

D) Active transport

E) Diffusion


In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate

A) Oxygen

B) Pyruvic acid





Which of the following is not a major element of a microbial cell?

A) Carbon

B) Copper

C) Oxygen

D) Nitrogen

E) Hydrogen


Infectious protein particles are called

A) Spikes

B) Oncogenic viruses

C) Viroids

D) Phages

E) Prions


Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?

A) Protozoa

B) Fungi

C) Bacteria

D) Cyanobacteria

E) Algae


Which is not a characteristic of fungi?

A) Can use a wide variety of nutrients

B) Cells have cell walls

C) Include single-celled and filamentous forms

D) Heterotrophic nutrition

E) Photosynthetic


All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called

A) Catabolism

B) Metabolism

C) Phosphorylation

D) Cellular respiration

E) Redox reactions


The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the

A) Sporozoite

B) Cyst

C) Oocyst

D) Trophozoite

E) Food vacuole


Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration are found?

A) Chloroplasts

B) Mitochondria

C) Endoplasmic reticulum

D) Lysosomes

E) Golgi apparatus


Which of the following is not associated with every virus?

A) Genome

B) Capsomeres

C) Nucleic acid

D) Envelope

E) Capsid


Feedback inhibition is best described as

A) Substrate binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription

B) Product binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription

C) None of the choices are correct

D) Substrate binding to enzyme in non-competitive site

E) Product binding to enzyme in non-competitive site


Viruses have all the following except

A) Ability to infect host cells

B) Definite shape

C) Ultramicroscopic size

D) Genes

E) Metabolism


Each of the following are true of enzymes except

A) All of the choices are true of enzymes

B) They can be used over and over

C) They increase the activation energy of a reaction

D) Their active site is specific to the substrate

E) They may or may not require cofactors


Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm.

A) Commensals

B) Pathogens

C) Thermophiles

D) Halophiles

E) Mesophiles


Contractile vacuoles are

A) Protein carriers in cell membranes

B) Important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments

C) Found in bacterial cells

D) Used to expel excess water from cells

E) Used to bring solutes into a cell


Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism

A) Growth factor

B) Element

C) Trace element

D) Macronutrient

E) Water


Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there
was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species
is a/an

A) Capnophile

B) Facultative anaerobe

C) Anaerobe

D) Aerobe

E) Microaerophile


The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is

A) Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release

B) Adsorption, release, synthesis, uncoating, assembly, penetration

C) Uncoating, penetration, synthesis, assembly, absorption, release

D) Penetration, uncoating, synthesis, adsorption, assembly, release

E) Assembly, synthesis, uncoating, release, penetration, adsorption


Which of the following will not support viral cultivation?

A) All of the choices will support viral cultivation

B) Continuous cell cultures

C) Live lab animals

D) Embryonated bird eggs

E) Primary cell cultures


Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are

A) Oncoviruses

B) Syncytia

C) Inclusion bodies

D) Chronic latent viruses

E) Cytiopathic


The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembles a bacterial cell is the

A) Mitochondria

B) Golgi apparatus

C) Ribosome

D) Lysosome

E) Nucleus


Classification of viruses into families involves determining all the following characteristics except

A) Type of capsid

B) Number of strands in the nucleic acid

C) Type of nucleic acid

D) Biochemical reactions

E) Presence of an envelope


The core of every virus particle always contains

A) DNA and RNA

B) Capsomeres

C) Either DNA or RNA

D) Enzymes



Which of the following does not pertain to helminths?

A) Often alternate hosts in complex life cycles

B) Parasitic worms

C) Have various organ systems

D) Eggs and sperm for reproduction

E) In kingdom Protista


Host range is limited by

A) Type of nucleic acid in the virus

B) Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane

C) All of the choices are correct

D) Age of the host cell

E) Size of the host cell


Protists include

A) All of the choices are correct

B) Yeasts and molds

C) Algae and protozoa

D) Helminths

E) None of the choices are correct


The production of antibodies is a form of antagonism called

A) Symbiosis

B) Synergism

C) Antibiosis

D) Satellitism

E) Mutualism


In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the

A) Chloroplasts

B) Ribosomes

C) Mitochondria

D) Cell membrane

E) Cytoplasm


The term chemotroph refers to an organism that

A) Uses CO2 for its carbon source

B) Gets energy from sunlight

C) Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs

D) Does not need a carbon source

E) Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds


Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab bench top, on the shelf of a 37° C incubator

and on the shelf of a 50° C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37° C and 50° C, slight growth out on the bench top
and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?

A) Capnophile

B) Halophile

C) Anaerobe

D) Mesophile

E) Psychrophile


Lysogeny refers to

A) Latent state of herpes infections

B) None of the choices are correct

C) Viral genome inserting into bacterial host chromosome

D) Altering the host range of a virus

E) Virion exiting host cell


The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called

A) Diffusion

B) Osmosis

C) Endocytosis

D) Facilitated diffusion

E) Active transport


An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membranous sacs and functions to receive, modify and package proteins for cell secretion is

A) Endoplasmic reticulum

B) Chloroplasts

C) Lysosomes

D) Mitochondria

E) Golgi apparatus


Viral nucleic acids include which of the following

A) Double stranded RNA

B) Double stranded DNA

C) All of the choices are

D) Single stranded RNA

E) Single stranded DNA


All of the following pertain to glycolysis except

A) Degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O

B) Ends with formation of pyruvic acid

C) Occurs without oxygen

D) Involves reduction of NAD

E) Occurs during fermentation


All of the following are helminths except

A) Pinworms

B) Trypanosomes

C) Flukes

D) Roundworms

E) Tapeworms


Virus capsids are made from subunits called

A) Peplomers

B) Envelopes

C) Spikes

D) Capsomeres

E) Prophages


The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of

A) Anabolism

B) Biosynthesis

C) Catabolism

D) Phosphorylation

E) Fermentation


During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?

A) Processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycle

B) All phases produce the same number of ATP molecules

C) Glycolysis

D) Krebs cycle

E) Electron transport


As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a
concentration gradient called the proton motive force.

A) Hydrogen ions

B) Phosphate

C) Oxygen




Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in

A) Krebs cycle and electron transport chain

B) Glycolysis and electron transport chain

C) Photosynthesis and glycolysis

D) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle

E) All of the choices are correct


An organism that can exist in both oxygen and oxygen less environments is a/an

A) Aerobe

B) Obligate anaerobe

C) Obligate aerobe

D) Facultative anaerobe

E) Microaerophile


The term autotroph refers to an organism that:

A) Uses CO2 for its carbon source

B) Gets energy from sunlight

C) Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs

D) Does not need a carbon source

E) Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds


All of the following are found in some or all protozoa except

A) Heterotrophic nutrition

B) Ectoplasm and endoplasm

C) Formation of a cyst stage

D) Motility

E) Cell wall


When a bacterium acquires a trait from its temperate phage, it is called

A) Transformation

B) Lysogenic conversion

C) Transcription

D) Translation

E) Viral persistence


Nutrient absorption is mediated by the

A) Cell wall

B) Peptidoglycan layer

C) Proteins in the periplasmic space

D) Nuclear membrane

E) Cell membrane


Viruses with _____ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, while viruses with _____ sense RNA must first be
converted into a correct message.

A) Primary, secondary

B) Positive, negative

C) None of the choices are correct

D) Negative, positive

E) Secondary, primary


In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum
number of ATP generated?

A) 36 ATP

B) 3 ATP

C) 38 ATP

D) 24 ATP

E) 2 ATP


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