Chemistry Unit #1A

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test thursday!

chemistry

the scientific study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes and the energy associated with it

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space (has mass and volume)

element

a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of this have the same atomic number

atom

the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element

periodic table

an arrangement of the elements in order of the atomic numbers (# of protons) such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group

group

a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the elements in it share chemical properties

period

in chemistry, a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, biochemistry, theoretical

Name 6 branches of chemistry.

organic chemistry

this branch of chemistry studies carbon-containing compounds

inorganic chemistry

this branch of chemistry studies non-organic substances; often organic substances bonded to metals

physical chemistry

this branch of chemistry studies the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

analytical chemistry

this branch of chemistry involves the identification of components and the composition of materials

biochemistry

this branch of chemistry studies substances and processes occurring in living things

theoretical chemistry

this branch of chemistry uses math and computers to understand principles behind the observed chemical behavior and to design and predict properties of new compounds

metals

___ are good conductors of heat and electricity

metals

Most ___ are solids

metals

Most ___ have high density and a high melting point

metals

___ are malleable

malleability

_____ is the ability to be hammered and flattened into a sheet

metals

_____ are ductile.

ductility

____ is the ability to be drawn into a wire.

metals

___ have high tensile strength

hard to break

materials with high tensile strength are ___ __ ____

metals

___ have high luster

metals

____ are mostly grey-silver colored

nonmetals

____ do not conduct heat/electricity

nonmetals

___ are not malleable. They are brittle.

bromine

the only liquid nonmetal is ____.

metalloids

____ are semi-conductors of heat/electricity.

hydrogen, alkali metals

Group 1 consists of __ and the ____.

alkaline earth metals

Group 2 consists of the __________.

halogens

Group 17 consists of the ______.

noble gases

Group 18 consists of the __________.

alkali metals

The _____ are the most reactive elements.

noble gases

The ____ are the least reactive elements.

transition metals

Groups 3-12 are the _________.

13-16

Groups ___-____ are called by the name of the element at the top of their column.

wavelength

the distance from one point of a wave to the same locale of the next wave

lambda

What is the symbol for wavelength called?

frequency

the number of waves that pass a specific point during a specified time period (per second, usually)

nu

What is the symbol for frequency called?

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that travels in a wave-like form at the speed of light

visible light, microwaves, radiowaves, x-rays

Name four examples of electromagnetic radiation.

electromagnetic spectrum

a chart that displays all possible combinations of wavelengths and frequencies for electromagnetic radiation

low

Long wavelength results in ___ frequency

high

Short wavelength results in ___ frequency

spectroscope

this tool separates light into its component colors

prisms

Original spectroscopes used ___ and a tube with a slit

Bunson

who developed the spectroscope?

diffraction grating

This is a thin sheet of plastic with thousands of tiny grooves on the surface. It replaced the prism in spectroscopes.

continuous spectrum

It is called a ______ when all the colors are blended and present.

emission-line spectrum

a fingerprint for a specific element is called a(n) _________. It is the specific color(s) of light given off by a specific element.

wavelength X frequency

For all waves, velocity = _____ X _____

speed of light

For electromagnetic radiation, velocity = ______

Planck's constant X frequency

To find the energy of a photon, energy = ____ X ______

Joules (J)

What is the unit for energy?

triads

Groups of three elements are called ____.

Johann Dobereiner

Who put the elements into groups of three?

mass of the middle element

The masses of the smallest and biggest element in each triad averaged to be the ___ __ ___ ____ _____.

Stanislao Cannizzaro

Who proposed a method for finding and reporting elements' atomic masses systematically?

John Newlands

Who proposed the "law of octaves"?

law of octaves

The system of arranging elements in seven rows of seven elements, in increasing atomic mass order, with the 1st and 8th elements having similar properties, was called the ________.

Dmitri Mendeleev, Lothar Meyer

Which two men made the periodic law?

periodic law

The former ____ ___ says that physical and chemical properties are a periodic function of the element's atomic mass.

Mendeleev

Who left gaps in his periodic table for elements that weren't invented yet?

Sir William Ramsay, John Strutt

Which two men worked together and found Argon and most of the other noble gases?

Henry Moseley

Who organized the periodic table by atomic law?

periodic law

The modern ____ ____ says that physical and chemicals properties are a periodic function of the element's atomic number.

International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry

What does IUPAC stand for?

number, mass

The modern atomic law says atomic ___ rather than atomic ____.

masses, chemical symbols, names

IUPAC reports agreed upon ____, ____, and _____.

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