specific to an individual, perform and record at periodic intervals over time
Infants (birth to 3 mos.)
Pulse 100-130; Resp. Rate 30-50; BP S:85-90 D:35-65
Infants (3 mo. to 1yr)
BP S:90-100 D:60-67
Pulse 80-100; BP S: 100-120 D:65-75
Temp 96.8-99.5; Pulse 60-100; Resp. Rate 12-20; BP S:120 D: 80
Temp 96.5-97.5; Pulse 60-100; Resp. Rate 15-22; BP S:120-140 D: 80-90
Abnormalities in Body Temp
Pyrexia, hyperthermia, febrile state, and hypothermia
Clinical manifestations of hyperthermia: cardiovascular...
heart rate increases
clinical manifestations of hyperthermia: nervous...
febrile seizures in young children; low grade fevers-sleep, confused; high grade-delirium, coma
clinical manifestations of hyperthermia: respiratory...
hypoxia, respiratory alkalosis
clinical manifestations of hyperthermia: renal...
clinical manifestations of hyperthermia: hematologic...
dehydration results in hemoconcentration
Clinical manifestation of hypothermia: cardiovascular..
frostbite, lactic acidosis; first tachycardia(fast heartbeat) then bradycardia(slow heartbeat); BP drops; Asystole at temps below 82.4
clinical manifestations of hypothermia: nervous...
vasoconstriction, shivering; reflexes disappear
clinical manifestations of hypothermia: respiratory...
initially increases but decreases as O2 consumption declines
clinical manifestations of hypothermia: renal...
cold induced diuresis
Factors that influence body temp
environ. age. activity. disease. infection. time of day. menstrual cycle. pregnancy
the wave of blood in an artery created by contraction of the left ventricle during a cardiac cycle
can be felt on the outer reaches of the body.
heartbeat at the apex of the heart and is heard with a stetchoscope
Parameters of pulse
rate, rhythm, volume
number of pulsations per minute
tachycardia-over 100 bpm
bradycardia-less 60 bpm
Pattern of pulsations and the intervals between them
the amount of force created by the ejected blood against the arterial wall during each ventricular contraction
1+ thready-easily obliterated with slight pressure
2+ weak-difficult to palpate, can be obliterated with light pressure
a measure of arterial blood oxygenation that is updated with each pusle wave
Arterial blood gases (ABG)
tool used to determine the effectiveness of alveolar ventilation
expressed as PaO2
Pulse oximetry norms.
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
diminished supply of oxygen to the tissues
complete lack of oxygen
to supply the body with oxygen for the metabolic activity and to remove CO2
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli of the lungs and blood
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the circulating blood and body tissues
initicated by contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles. normal insp. lasts 1-1.5 sec.
during relaxed breathing it is passive. lungs recoil.
normal expir. lasts 2-3 sec.
Parameters of Resp.
Depth: volume of air exchanged with each breath norm. 500mL of air
Rhythm:regular or irregular
Sound:deviations from quiet, normal breathing
normal breathing of 12-20 times/min
difficult or labored breathing
difficult or labored breathing when laying down that is relieved by moving to sitting or standing
greater than 24 bpm
less than 10 bpm
the force the blood exerts against the vessel wall; pressure is highest in arteries and lowest in veins.